Monday, September 30, 2019
1.Introduction Tuberculosis is a very serious infectious disease that primarily affects the lungs, causing cough and breathing difficulties. The infection also causes systemic effects including fever, night sweats and weight loss (Ellner, 2011). In some cases, the infection can spread beyond the lungs and affect the bone/joints, lymph nodes, abdomen and blood stream (Ormerod, 2003). The disease is caused by the bacteria mycobacterium tuberculosis (WHO, 2014), which is spread through respiratory droplets. These droplets are passed when an infected individual coughs or sneezes and the droplets become inhaled by another person (NHS, 2014). Despite this easy method of transmission, tuberculosis is not readily transmitted, and therefore is most likely to affect those in close contact such as family or household members (Castillo-Chavez & Feng). Tuberculosis represents a significant risk of morbidity and mortality and represents a significant cost to society to treat and manage. Tuberculosis has particul arly shown to be a problem in cities, whereby the rates of increase are greater than those of rural areas (Anderson et al. 2006). This essay will address the reasons as to why tuberculosis affects urban areas (the sick city hypothesis), and look in to why tuberculosis contributes to this urban health penalty. As an exemplar of an urban environment suffering from the burden of tuberculosis, this essay will focus on the London borough of Newham. Newham has a tuberculosis rate 8 times higher than the national average and 3 times that of London. This essay aims to investigate the aetiology behind the incidence, and to find ways of reducing the rates of tuberculosis among individuals in the London borough of Newham. The paper will include the intervention strategies and how they should be implemented in order to reduce the rates of new infections and encourage men to get tested and get early treatment before the spread of infection. 2.Tuberculosis in an Urban Environment Tuberculosis tends to be regarded as a problem of the past, and was responsible for 20-30% of all mortality in 17th-19th century Europe (Dye & Williams, 2010). The incidence of tuberculosis declined throughout the 20th century (Watson & Maguire, 1997), however, the disease has been slowly returning to London since the 1980Ã¢â¬â¢s (Great Britain 2008, p. 19). The problem seems to be worsening in urban areas. This is illustrated by the example of London, where 3,302 new cases of tuberculosis (TB) were reported in 2010 (Fullman & Strachan 2013, p. 25), a figure that has more than doubled since 1992 (Anderson et al 2006). In 2006, the incidence of tuberculosis in London was 41.5 people in 100,000, a figure that represented the highest number of new cases in any major city in Western Europe (Anderson et al, 2006). Dyer (2010, p. 34) claims that the London borough of Newham is the most affected with some people already referring to it as the TB capital of the affluent western world. In f act, the rates of tuberculosis in Newham are currently higher than that in some impoverished countries. Vassall (2009, p. 48) suggest that Newham has 108 cases per 100,000 and Anderson et al suggest a 2001 figure of 116/100,000, figures that are more than half that in India (174 cases per 100,000) (Public Health England, 2012). Newham has a population of 308,000 with a population density of 85.1 per hectare as compared to 31 in central London (UK Census, 2012). These figures suggest that even in the populated city of London, Newham is an area of urbanisation, with a large number of people concentrated into a relatively small area. The increase of tuberculosis has been described as a Ã¢â¬Ëpenalty for high density urban livingÃ¢â¬â¢ (Dye 2010, p.859), likely due to the increased potential for transmission in overcrowding, and the increased rates of immigration to inner-city areas. Bhunu and Mushavabasa (2012) propose that tuberculosis thrives in conditions of overcrowding and poverty, issues that are common in urban areas. The high rates of tuberculosis in cities such as London, and areas of urbanization such as Newham, suggest that the incidence of tuberculosis is indeed an urban issue. Newham fulfills the criteria of high immigration rates and being an area of deprivation.. Newham has a diverse ethnic population, with 61% of the people being non-white (Farrar & Manson 2013, p. 54). The population of ethnic minorities continues to grow along with the increasing numbers of refugees and asylum seekers in greater London. Another aspect of urbanisation illustrated in the borough of Newham is that of deprivation and overcrowding. Farrar & Manson (2013, p. 16) claim that Newham ranks as the third most deprived borough in inner London. Most of the people here live in tower housing and overcrowded conditions that are the perfect condition for the spread of tuberculosis. There is a positive correlation between poor housing and poverty and the prevalence of tuberculosis, which is very clear in Newham as evidenced by the findings of 108 and 116 cases per 100,000 people (Vassal, 2009; Anderson et al., 2001). The aetiology of the issue of tuberculosis is highlighted when considering the distribution of the disease across Newham. The occurrence of disease is not evenly spread across the borough, with 70% of cases coming from Manor Park, Green Street and East Ham. These boroughs represent areas of population increase, overcrowding and higher levels of those living in poverty. Manor Park and Green Street also sho w differing dynamics of tuberculosis incidence, representing an overall increase of 40% since 2006 whilst all other areas of Newham either remained static or showed slight decrease (Malone et al 2009, p. 23). It can be seen that tuberculosis presents a significant urban issue, especially when comparing incidence in an urban area such as Newham to those less urbanised areas. Bromley has a population of 309,000 and a population density of 20 per hectare, in comparison to NewhamÃ¢â¬â¢s population density of 80 per hectare (UK Census, 2012). Tuberculosis incidence in Bromley is between 0-19 per 100,000 compared to that of Newham, which is five times greater at 80-100 per 100,000 (Anderson et al., 2006). It is for this reason that necessary intervention strategies need to be formulated and implemented to help reduce the rates of tuberculosis among individuals living in Newham. 3. The Influence of Urbanisation on Tuberculosis Incidence While the global rates of tuberculosis are declining, the disease is showing steady increase in the United Kingdom. In 2012, 8751 new cases of the disease were identified in the country with 39% coming from London (Fullman and Strachan 2013, p. 43). Indeed London has the highest rates of the disease in Western Europe with Newham borough having the highest rates in the UK. Jindal (2011, p. 55) claims that the rate of tuberculosis in some London boroughs is more than twice higher than the threshold used by the world health organisation to define high rates. These higher incidences support the notion of a sick city hypothesis where there are greater levels of ill health than in rural areas, and may be due to the presence of factors in an urban environment that contribute to ill health (an urban health penalty). One factor that may contribute to the urban health penalty is that of immigration. Cities are easier to access than rural areas, provide areas of congregation and provide more fa cilities for immigrating families and individuals. The majority of individuals suffering from tuberculosis are people born outside the United Kingdom, with 75% of cases in 2003 being born abroad (Anderson et al., 2006). A reason for the high incidence in those born abroad but now living in the UK is exacerbated by the nature of tuberculosis. On initial infection, tuberculosis is confined by the immune system with only around 5% of cases experiencing symptoms within the first two years of infection (Narasimhan et al., 2013). The remainder of cases harbour a latent infection which may reactivate later in life, with about 10-15% of those infected going on to develop an active disease (Narasimhan et al., 2013). This insidious nature combined with the later activation of the disease explains why many people do not get the disease until later in life. It is likely that it is contracted in their country of birth, however then manifests much later once they have moved to the UK. Statistics indicate that over 90% of the residents in Newham diagnosed with the disease in 2011 were born outside the United Kingdom (Fullman and Strachan, 2013, p. 33). Among these, 50% arrived in the country in the last five years. In the same year tuberculosis diagnosis increased by 25% compared to 2010 (Fullman and Strachan, 2013), possibly as a reflection of the increased immigration. Additionally to a high immigrant population bringing significant disease burden from their countries of birth, London and Newham both represent many of the other issues of urbanisation and urban health penalty that can contribute to the high incidence of tuberculosis. Studies have shown that low vitamin D levels are associated with an increased risk of developing tuberculosis (Campbell and Spector, 2012; Chan, 1999). This is an important association in urban populations, as the living and working conditions foster less access to sunlight (the major source of vitamin D). Additionally, Asian immigrants present a problem of low vitamin D due to vegetarian diets, and a tendency to cover up their skin, not allowing to take advantage of the small amount of sunlight available (Chan, 1999). As previously mentioned, Newham is an area of both high urbanisation and with a large immigrant population, and 38.6% of the population being of Asian descent (London Borough of Newham, 2010). The immigrant population of urban areas such as Newham also present a non-vaccinated proportion of society. Whilst the BCG vaccine against tuberculosis was introduced in the UK in the 1950s and was shown to provide a reduction in risk of contracting tuberculosis (Colditz et al., 1994), those immigrating were less likely to receive this vaccination on moving to the UK. London also represents cases of tuberculosis that are socially and medically complex. As a hugely populated area, London includes those with HIV infection and presents other risk factors such as onward transmission and poor treatment. HIV is one of the m ost powerful risk factors for tuberculosis, with a incidence rate of 20 times higher in those that are HIV positive (Dye and Williams, 2010). PeopleÃ¢â¬â¢s attitudes towards and access to healthcare also present a complex mix of factors which contribute to an increased incidence of many health problems, including that of tuberculosis. Those in impoverished areas have reduced access to healthcare, which may stem from many reasons such as complex needs, chaotic lifestyles, location of services, user ignorance, and language and literacy barriers (Szczepura, 2005). These can affect the disease process of tuberculosis from prevention, treatment of active disease, adherence to treatment and prevention of the health consequences. Especially problematic are misconceptions and a lack of understanding of the disease, leading to late presentation and delayed access to treatment (Figuera-Munoz and Ramon-Pardo, 2008) With the close living quarters in areas such as Newham, the spread of tubercu losis is facilitated. With poverty, poor housing and overcrowding, these areas concentrate several risk factors and lead to a greater spread of tuberculosis (Bates et al., 2004). These determinants therefore suggest that the incidence of tuberculosis in urban areas is a complex issue. Controlling and preventing tuberculosis in London requires effective social and economic tools that must be incorporated in the development of policies of control in treatment initiation. 4. Consequences and implications of tuberculosis on the general population Tuberculosis ranks with HIV/ AIDS and Malaria as one of the three main health challenges currently facing the world. The Commonwealth Health Ministers Update 2009 (2009, p. 41) indicates that 8 million new cases are reported globally each year. As previously mentioned, when combined with HIV, tuberculosis can prove lethal as the two diseases enhance the progress of each other. It is for this reason that tuberculosis is the major cause of death among HIV patients with the rate standing at 11% globally. The World Health Organization (2009, p. 27) indicates that tuberculosis is responsible for more deaths today than ever before, with approximately 2 million lives claimed by the disease annually. As well as the significant mortality contributed by tuberculosis, the morbidity of the disease can be extremely detrimental both socially and economically. Those with the active disease that are not receiving treatment have been shown to go on to infect 10-15 others every year (WHO, 1998). Those who do receive treatment face a long (up to six months) and complex treatment regime involving several medication side effects. This can affect adherence to the treatment regime, and lead to the disease developing a resistance to the treatment, with this drug resistant tuberculosis contributing to greater mortality and increased expense to treat (Ahlburg, 2000). As well as the significant morbidity and mortality, it is important to consider the economic impact of tuberculosis. The World Health Organisation estimated the cost to treat tuberculosis in 2000 as $250,000 US dollars (?150,000) in developed countries (Ahlburg, 2000). This presents a significant burden to the UK NHS, not to mention the time lost through not working which can dent the economy. London is a global world trade centre whose economy is shaped by global forces, particularly in terms of trade, labour and capital. As a gateway to both the UK and other parts of Europe and the rest of the world, London records a very large number of tourists and immigrant populations. This high number of people accelerates the spread of the disease as people carry it to the country from other parts of the world is indicated by the new infection patterns and is highlighted by the prevalence in immigrant populations. 5. Strategies and intervention for addressing tuberculosis Current UK guidelines for tuberculosis intervention were made by NICE in 2006 (updated 2011). The recommendations propose strategies for identifying those with latent (non-active) tuberculosis to prevent spread or reactivation and also specify criteria for treatment (NICE, 2011). Those recommended for screening for latent tuberculosis include close contacts of infected individuals, immigrants from high incidence countries, immunocompromised individuals, and healthcare workers. Whilst this strategy targets prevention of the spread of tuberculosis, they are only targeting specific groups, and it is likely in high incidence areas such as Newham, people will slip through the net. These guidelines have only changed minimally since 2006, and since then tuberculosis incidence has been on the increase in areas such as Newham, suggesting that changes may need to be made. High incidence areas of the UK such as Newham could learn from New York experience and copy the strategy it used in dealing with the disease. With the implementation of broadened initial treatment regimes, direct observed therapy, and improved guidelines for hospital control and disease prevention, the city managed to halt the progression of an epidemic (Frieden et al., 1995). As mentioned in the previous chapter, adherence to the lengthy treatment regime as well as a lack of understanding may contribute to the spread of tuberculosis. Directly observed therapy (DOT) involves observing the patient take each dose of their medication, with outreach workers travelling to their homes. Evidence from New York showed that through DOT, only 3% of patients in therapy were infectious, compared to a proposed 20% if not receiving DOT (Frieden et al., 1995). Current UK guidelines (NICE, 2006) do not recommend DOT, although they do state that it may be used in cases of patients with previous issues with adherence or at high risk. Although an expensive and time consuming process, if DOT can reduce infectious cases, thi s would also work as a preventative measure. There could be one allocated outreach nurse for the borough of Newham and other high-risk areas. Another method implemented in New York was the downsizing of large shelters for the homeless. These were breeding grounds for tuberculosis, and the subsequent reduction in overcrowding led to a decrease in transmission of the disease (Frieden et al., 1995). Whilst it is not possible to split people up from living with their families in crowded homes in terms of Newham, education about keeping those with tuberculosis from interacting with too many others in crowded conditions may be of benefit. The model should also borrow from those used by other cities like Paris and the rest of Europe in controlling tuberculosis with intervention at the level of the agent, individual and community levels. In Paris, Rieder (2002) suggested that prophylactic treatment could be used to prevent the disease occurring in those at risk, for example those in the hou sehold of an identified case of tuberculosis. Additionally, Rieder (2002) proposed that early or neonate vaccination be used especially in those in areas where tuberculosis is frequent, rarely diagnosed, and adequate contact examinations rarely feasible. It may be possible that in cases where lots of people are vaccinated that they may infer herd immunity and thus protect unvaccinated individuals from the disease. Once the populations have been protected and the incidence (number of new cases) of tuberculosis has been reduced, this allows for a reduction in the prevalence of tuberculosis (number of ongoing cases at any one point in time) with preventative chemotherapy that can treat sub-clinical, latent tuberculosis in the population. This preventative chemotherapy is likely to be extremely relevant to Newham due to the large immigrant population likely harbouring latent tuberculosis. On a country- or city-wide scale, these recommendations from New York and Paris provide excellent m odels for preventing the increase of tuberculosis any further. It is also important, however, to consider the individual communities in Newham, and to promote health awareness and an attitude towards taking responsibility for their health. Their needs to be an encouragement at the level of primary care where immigrant populations feel that they can approach healthcare, and education to encourage tuberculosis prevention and adherence to treatment. The strategy should be all-inclusive in order to encourage people to not only go for testing but also start and finish the treatment process. 6. Recommendations and conclusion Tuberculosis presents an important urban issue in the area of Newham. Incidence is greater than other areas of the UK, and is over half that of India. There are several factors contributing to this including a large immigrant population, crowding and overpopulation, access to healthcare and comorbid health problems such as vitamin D deficiency and HIV. The disease has considerable effect on morbidity and is responsible for high levels of mortality. Further consequences of the disease manifest as economic problems such as cost of treatment and loss of work. London and the UK already have policies and structures for controlling tuberculosis in place; however the implementation process is patchy across the city, and often dependent upon budget. In high-risk areas such as Newham, there is poor access of healthcare due to inaccurate beliefs on the disease, language and cultural barriers, and complex needs of the population. In the case of tuberculosis, these contribute to poor disease pre vention, delayed diagnosis and poor treatment adherence. All of which lead to an increase in transmission and health consequences. The area of Newham would benefit greatly from further education into tuberculosis, how to look for signs and how to get treatment. Encouraging good relationship with healthcare professionals and promoting access to healthcare through outreach programmes and targeting pharmacies may be helpful. Additionally, Newham should look to employ techniques used in New York and Paris, including DOT, prophylactic treatment and neonate vaccination to reduce both the prevalence and incidence of tuberculosis. References Ahlburg (2000). The economic impact of TB: ministerial conference Amsterdam, WHO Bates, I., Fenton, C., Gruber, J., Lalloo, D., Lara, A. M., Squire, S. B., Ã¢â¬ ¦ and Tolhurst, R. (2004). Ã¢â¬ËVulnerability to malaria, tuberculosis, and HIV/AIDS infection and disease. Part II: determinants operating at environmental and institutional levelÃ¢â¬â¢. The Lancet Infectious Diseases, vol. 4(6), pp. 368-375. Bhunu, C. P., and Mushayabasa, S. (2012). Ã¢â¬ËAssessing the effects of poverty in tuberculosis transmission dynamicsÃ¢â¬â¢. Applied Mathematical Modelling, vol. 36(9), pp. 4173-4185. Campbell, G. R., and Spector, S. A. (2012). Ã¢â¬ËVitamin D inhibits human immunodeficiency virus type 1 and Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection in macrophages through the induction of autophagyÃ¢â¬â¢. PLoS pathogens, vol. 8(5). Castillo-Chavez, C., and Feng, Z. (1997). Ã¢â¬ËTo treat or not to treat: the case of tuberculosis. Journal of mathematical biologyÃ¢â¬â¢, vol. 35(6), pp. 629-656. Colditz, G. A., Brewer, T. F., Berkey, C. S., Wilson, M. E., Burdick, E., Fineberg, H. V., and Mosteller, F. (1994). Ã¢â¬ËEfficacy of BCG vaccine in the prevention of tuberculosismeta-analysis of the published literatureÃ¢â¬â¢. Jama, vol. 271(9), pp. 698-702. Commonwealth Health Ministers Update 2009. (2009). Commonwealth Secretarial. Dye, C., and Williams, B. G. (2010). Ã¢â¬ËThe population dynamics and control of tuberculosisÃ¢â¬â¢. Science, vol 328(5980), pp. 856-861. Dyer, C. A. (2010). Tuberculosis. Santa Barbara, California: Greenwood. Ellner JJ. Tuberculosis. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. GoldmanÃ¢â¬â¢s Cecil Medicine. 24th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2011: vol332. Farrar, J., & Manson, P. (2013). MansonÃ¢â¬â¢s tropical diseases. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley. Figueroa-Munoz, J. I., & Ramon-Pardo, P. (2008). Tuberculosis control in vulnerable groups. Bulletin of the World Health Organization, 86(9), 733-735. Frieden, T. R., Fujiwara, P. I., Washko, R. M., and Hamburg, M. A. (1995). Ã¢â¬ËTuberculosis in New York CityÃ¢â¬âturning the tideÃ¢â¬â¢. New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 333(4), pp. 229-233. Fullman, J., & Strachan, D. (2013). FrommerÃ¢â¬â¢s London 2013. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley. Great Britain. (2008). Diseases know no frontiers: How effective are intergovernmental organisations in controlling their spread; 1st report of session, 2007-08. London: Stationery Office. Jindal, S. K. (2011). Textbook of pulmonary and critical care medicine. New Delhi: Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers. London Borough of Newham, (2010). Community Leaders and Engagement, Manor Park Community Forum Profile [Online], Available:http://www.newham.info/research/CFProfiles/ManorPark.pdf [12 April 2014]. Malone, C., Beasley, R. P., Bressler, J., Graviss, E. A., Vernon, S. W., & University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston, School of Public Health. (2009). Trends in anti-tuberculosis drug resistan ce from 2003Ã¢â¬â2007 at Pham Ngoc Thach Tuberculosis and Lung Disease Hospital, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam. (Masters Abstracts International, 47-5.) National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (2006) [Clinical Diagnosis and Management of Tuberculosis, and measures for its prevention and control]. [CG117]. London: National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. Ormerod, L.P. (2003) Ã¢â¬ËNonrespiratory tuberculosis. In Davies PDO (Ed) Clinical Tuberculosis. Third Edition. Arnold: London. pp. 125-153. Public Health England (2012), World Health Organization (WHO) estimates of tuberculosis incidence by rate, 2012 (sorted by rate). [Online] Available at: http://www.hpa.org.uk/webc/HPAwebFile/HPAweb_C/1317140584841 [12 April 2014]. Rieder, H. A. (2002). Interventions for Tuberculosis Control, 1st edn. International Union Against Tuberculosis and Lung Disease, Paris, France. Szczepura, A. (2005). Ã¢â¬ËAccess to health care for ethnic minority populationsÃ¢â¬â¢. Postgraduate Medical Journal, vol. 81(953), pp. 141-147. Vassall, A., & University of Amsterdam. (2009). The Costs and cost-effectiveness of tuberculosis control. Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press. Watson, J. M., and Maguire. H.C (1997). Ã¢â¬ËPHLS work on the surveillance and epidemiology of tuberculosis.Ã¢â¬â¢ Communicable disease report. CDR review 7.8, pp. R110-2. World Health Organization. (2009). Global tuberculosis control: Epidemiology, strategy, financing : WHO report 2009. Geneva: World Health Organization. World Health Organisation (2014). Tuberculosis. [Online], Available: http://www.who.int/topics/tuberculosis/en/ [12 April 2014] UK Census (2012), UK Census Data, [Online]. http://www.ukcensusdata.com/newham-e09000025#sthash.51Phmj6a.dpbs [12 April 2014]
Sunday, September 29, 2019
Psychology has always been known to be the educated study about human behavior. For a long time now, psychology though has been expanding its social impact to the people that it aims to serve. Primarily, it is now utilized to understand the ways by which people could be assisted with their personal issues and thus be able to face the different challenges of human living. (Myers, 2006, 17) With the turn of time, handling human issues are also now subjected to different twists and several improvements that subject psychological procedures into conforming to the different trends of human society. The said trends include the issues of answering to the idealisms of the Black Americans [racial issues], feminists, and cross-cultural psychology approaches. Dealing with these different issues conscientiously actually define the modern process of psychology and counseling. (Myers, 2006, 19) How are the psychologists at present able to handle the said issues of human diversity to be strongly implicated within the existing system of traditional process of counseling? The differentiation of both the personal or human psychology and the different approaches used to explain social psychology could give a better view of how the said matter is implicated within the system. The concept of human action is generally concluded by the aspect of the scientific facts to be significantly caused by the works of the mind of every individual. This idea is generally expressed in the saying Ã¢â¬Å"what the mind can perceive, the body can conceive. Ã¢â¬ Thus, to empirically understand and explain the actions and personality of each individual in the society, their mind and their idealism must be critically explored finding the relevant relationship between each humanistic aspect of each individual. It is generally noted by the scientific research society that the very essence and personality of each individual resides intrinsically in their minds, which manifests as the source of their thoughts fueling their actions. Thus, for the very same reason that the field of psychology in the empirical world becomes an important aspect in the course of understanding the humanity and the path of their development becomes it intrinsically addresses the main core of each individual and the other aspects revolving around it. In this field, two specific branches become much intriguing and relevant to the scientific societyÃ¢â¬â¢s concern namely the branch of scientific psychology and social psychology. Personal Human Psychology Psychology mainly pertains to the empirical study of the intrinsic nature of each individual through considering relevant elements such his or her mental processes, behavior, personal perception and identity and other human characteristics in relation to their actions and behaviors. The field of psychology firmly holds that every action of the individual has its own reason behind it causing the said manifestation and the said reason lies hidden in the mind of the involved person. In the study of the scientific psychology of the subject, aspects such as personal perception towards inward matters and outside factors, behavioral and personal motivation, and the learning process play a significant part in the psychological development of each individual manifested mainly in the personality of the person. In addition, psychology also addressed the aspect of abnormal behavioral characteristics studying its main causes and contributory factors thus, establishing a scientifically significant pattern for it. In application, psychology becomes an important aspect in every field of scientific studies involving society and human characteristics and in explaining the relevant relationship of the two. Social Psychology Social Psychology mainly deals with the influential relationship between the social environment and its elements and the human beings and their psychological aspect. This field mainly addresses the psychological field through the social structure and system in the society and how it significantly affects the mental processes of each individual. (Aronson, 2004, 18) This attitude generally perceive human beings as individuals or as a group as the main unit of analysis employing the common social behavior of interacting with other individuals as part of the social system developing their distinctive individuality and personality. In this concept, as each individual interact with other individuals, they develop their own identity with their own social perception and psychological personality. In the aspect of its application, this study is significantly relevant in profiling and understanding the psychological nature and personality of the subject by considering his or her social backgrounds and experiences while he or she interacts with others as part of the social system. (Aronson, 2004, 17) Thus, psychology indeed becomes an important aspect in the development of the society and the human civilization as a whole. This field of scientific study can be applied to every field addressing basic and critical human nature understanding and explaining the intrinsic behavioral pattern of each individual and the actions manifesting the said psychological elements. This field of study firmly holds that humankind cannot further advance without first understanding their very basic nature and characteristics as significant units in the generally concept of humanity. (Lesko, 2000, 17) Obviously, understanding human behavior both through the personal and social context of the matter subjects the process to the different issues that the human society is actually involved with. It is through these advancements in the society that understanding the issues of human behavior becomes more enlightened thus making the process of explaining human dispositions and relating them to the process by which people could be guided with their propositions in life is indeed effective and beneficial for all. References: Myers, David G. Psychology. Worth Publishers; 8th Edition. 2006. Aronson, E. & Wilson T. D. & Akert R. M. (2004). Social Psychology. Prentice Hall, NY, USA. 5th Edition. Lesko, W. A. (2000). Readings in Social Psychology: General, Classic and Contemporary Selections. Allyn and Bacon, Boston, USA. 5th Edition.
Saturday, September 28, 2019
Introduction Stephen Quinlan and Jose Gomez-Ibanez describes, in Ã¢â¬Å"The Coffee CrisisÃ¢â¬ , that in 2004 the governments of coffee producing countries were considering how to respond to rapid decline to coffee prices. In 2001, coffee prices hit a forty-year low, which resulted in extreme hardships for the local farming communities. On that note, this decline in coffee prices was considered Ã¢â¬Å"the coffee crisis. Ã¢â¬ The coffee crisis came to be thanks in part to coffees: overproduction, under-consumption and oligopoly market structure. International Nature and Structure. At best, coffee should be grown in an area with a warm climate and an abundance of rain. Coffee is centrally grown near the equator; however, it is primarily consumed in the northern hemisphere. It is traded in 60-kilo bags and the annual crop exceeded 100 million bags in recent years. Ã¢â¬Å"In 2003, for example, 101 million bags were produced of which roughly 95 million bags were consumed and the remaining 6 million added to storage in the hopes of fetching higher prices in later yearsÃ¢â¬ (Quinlan & Gomez-Ibanez, p. 1, 2004). Coffee is comes in two types: Arabica, which is milder in flavor, and Robusta, which is acidic. Robusta, which is grown in Asia and some countries in Africa, is easier to grow and is primarily used to make instant coffee, espresso and local consumption in the producing countries (Quinlan & Gomez-Ibanez, p. 2, 2004). Arabica, which is grown primarily Latin America makes up, historically, two-thirds of the coffee produced and is the longest to produce. The long production time begins with a two year period before the coffee seedling can bear fruit followed by several more years before reaching full production (Quinlan & Gomez-Ibanez, p. 2, 2004). Supply and Demand Analysis There was a rapid decrease in coffee consumption due to an increase in soft drink consumption. In the U. S. , it is estimated that coffee consumption fell from 36 gallons to 17 gallons per person and soft drinks increased from 23 to 53 gallons per person (Quinlan & Gomez-Ibanez, p. 2, 2004). As U. S. coffee consumption began to slow down in the 1990s, due in part to the increased liking to premium coffees thanks to Starbucks, PeteÃ¢â¬â¢s and other coffee chains, European coffee consumption increased along with other countries helping offset the U. S decline. Beginning in 1962, the International Coffee Organization (ICO), an association of coffee exporting and importing countries, managed the coffee market by negotiating exporting and import quotas to support target prices (Quinlan & Gomez-Ibanez, p. 3, 2004). The ICA collapsed in 1989 and this opened the door for non-traditional suppliers like Vietnam and traditional supplier Brazil. During this period, Brazil had always been the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s largest coffee producer, growing Arabica by traditional labor-intensive methods in frost-prone areas (Quinlan & Gomez-Ibanez, p. 3, 2004). Since most Arabica coffee is grown on steep slopes, Brazilians utilized new plantations on leveled ground; developed new large-scale coffee plantations in less frost-prone areas, mechanical harvesters along with other cost-cutting devices to replace donkeys in how they produce coffee. Vietnam, who had never exported coffee before through government assistance, was able to build irrigation systems to help in the production of Robusta coffee beans (Quinlan & Gomez-Ibanez, p. 3, 2004). These beans produced in Vietnam had a poor quality, less flavorful and were processed at lower quality standards than traditional Arabica. Within a couple of years Vietnam had become a top supplier and was setting the price in which all other Robusta producers would have to compete. By the end of the decade, Vietnam had become the largest Robusta producer in the world, although its costs were rising as the rapid growth in the Vietnamese economy was increasing local income and wages (Quinlan & Gomez-Ibanez, p. 3, 2004). Market Structure The overall coffee market resembled that of an oligopoly, which is defined as Ã¢â¬Å"a market dominated by a few large producers of homogeneous or differentiated product. Because of how few exist, oligopolies had considerable control over their prices, but each must consider the possible reaction of rivals to its own pricing, output, and advertising decisionsÃ¢â¬ (McConnell, Brue & Flynn, 2012, p. 223). Oligopolies are also characterized by barriers to market entry (McConnell, Brue & Flynn, 2012). Although there were many countries producing and exporting coffee, the market was largely dominated by a few countries (i. e. , Brazil, Colombia, and later on, Vietnam). Oligopoly, by its very nature, limits transparency in the market place. Within ten years this country grew from a relatively insignificant producer to the world second largest Ã¢â¬â ahead of Colombia (producing ~11 million bags accounting for 10% world export) but behind Brazil (producing ~35 million bags accounting for 35% world export) Ã¢â¬â producing well over 11 million bags annually and accounting for approximately 12% of world exports (CRB, 2006). Factor Markets From the ICA collapse bringing forth VietnamÃ¢â¬â¢s entrance into the coffee market to the quality degradation, the coffee crisis affected more than just the market. With a drop in coffee prices, the farmers not being able to cover all of their costs so growerÃ¢â¬â¢s families many had to remove their kids in order to help out at the farm (Quinlan & Gomez-Ibanez, 2004). There was the merging of coffee blends and the experimentation of new ways of creating low quality coffee beans in an effort to meet demands. As a result many of the beans were of poor quality, which caused the coffees to taste cheap. Furthermore, such an increase in low-quality beans causes the price to drop in order to remain competitive (Quinlan & Gomez-Ibanez, p.3, 2004). Many major roasters experimented with technical advances in finding new ways to mask the bitterness of the acidic bean. They even went as far as combining Robusta and Arabica beans together. This line of production caused the price of coffee to decrease, which hurt many producers because the profits werenÃ¢â¬â¢t enough to cover most of their overhead (roughly 65-90 US cents per pound) (Quinlan & Gomez-Ibanez, Exhibit 6, 2004). This caused the quality of coffee to diminish because many roasters were using beans that should have been discarded. It also caused countries whose costs were high (Central America, Colombia and Mexico) with average or lower quality coffee to be in trouble (Quinlan & Gomez-Ibanez, 2004). Reference: Commodity Research Bureau (CRB). (2006). The CRB Commodity Yearbook 2006. [eBook] Retrieved from http://books. google. com/books? id=GmzxkvNhxnIC&printsec=frontcover McConnell, C. R. , Brue, S. L. , & Flynn, S. M. (2012). Wage Determination. Economics (19th ed. ), (pp92-114). New York, NY: McGraw-Hill. Quinlan, S. & Gomez-Ibanez, J. (2004). The Coffee Crisis. Capella University. McGraw-Hill.
Friday, September 27, 2019
Philosophical meanings behind 4 films - Assignment Example Like the title implies, Surrogates has meaning attached to it that is of interesting moral consequence. As we see in Laches, Plato explores the various depth perceptions of morality. PlatoÃ¢â¬â¢s Republic, books 2, 3, and 4, are reflected in the questions that are faced by the main character in the movie Garden State, where Zach Braff is playing a character named Andrew Largeman, or Ã¢â¬Å"Large,Ã¢â¬ as he is called by his friends. Basically, Plato sets up the stage for the later chapter of the Republic wherein he will discuss virtue more in-depth. In the beginning, however, Plato, like Large, is considering pondering the great questions of life. Largeman questions whether he really needs medication, while Plato philosophizes about what consists of the good, the truthful, and the beautiful. PlatoÃ¢â¬â¢s seventh book of the Republic more adequately reflects what is meant by virtuousness, or basically what is good and moral. Large in Garden State reflects the ideas that morals are a part of family values as he tries to build a future with Sam, the female lead in Garden State whom Andrew meets at a doctorÃ¢â¬â¢s office. He is there as a patient and so is she. They navigate the treacherous waters of being boyfriend and girlfriend while not yet being exclusively so, and basically they become an Ã¢â¬Å"itemÃ¢â¬ together (a couple) throughout the course of the movie. Plato was someone who was interested in communication and this movie Garden State demonstrates the importance of communication and family in everyday life, as that is part of what constituted virtuousness was doing good things. Nicomachean Ethics are present in the movie The Social Network, as basically we see how ethics pervades (or, perhaps, is Ã¢â¬Å"lostÃ¢â¬ ) in this movie. Friends betray friends over the emerging company of Facebook, which causes a lot of difficulty for everyone involved in the nascent stages of one of the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s largest social networking
Thursday, September 26, 2019
Public Health and Social Care - Essay Example This discussion stressesÃ health inequalities are the differences that exist in the health status between different socioeconomic groups. In most countries, differences in health are observed across the population. Variations in genetics and constitution ensure that there is a variation in the health of individuals. Age groups also play a key role in determining the prevalence of ill health. Older people tend to fall sick more often as compared to younger people due to the ageing process .According to the report findings obesity is a condition associated with being overweight and having a lot of body fat. This condition affects people across all ages and may be caused by either factors related to heredity and variation in human genetics or the lifestyle one chooses to live. Most cases of obesity in Hammersmith and Fulham are due to the kind of lifestyle. Most people living in the Borough are economically very stable, and this translates to the kind of lifestyle they live. According to National Obesity Observatory, six out of ten men, and five out of every ten women living in Hammersmith are either overweight or obese. The statistics further indicate that the prevalence of obesity among the adults increased from fifteen percent in 1993 to twenty-six percent in 2010. Sixty-seven percent of men and fifty-eight percent of women were overweight in 2010.Ã Children in the highest income quintiles have the least risk of suffering obesity while the proportion of obesity in children is highest in the lowest quintiles.
Financial management and risk analysis - Essay Example The new assembly cell requires three cell programmer/operators recruited at a salary of Ã £20,000 per year each. The cell robots are expected to last for 5 years, after which they can be sold off for an estimated price of Ã £1,000 each. The companyÃ¢â¬â¢s cost of capital is currently 10%. This is a two-option financial investment appraisal case which compares the cost of operating an existing sub-assembly line with the cost of a new automated assembly cell. Both options incur costs we could compare to find out which option results in lower expenses over the next five years. Any savings will increase profits, which we can then transform into additional value that would benefit our shareholders. We utilised common investment criteria to analyse this project, and considered other factors that may affect its financial viability. We included our suggested solutions and potential effects on the final decision through a sensitivity analysis, which takes into account: 1. The cost of replacing our eight fitters and with three skilled operators. We included the effect of granting separation pay to each displaced operator and made a recommendation on how much we could afford to pay. The key insight to our problem is to match the cash flows for both options. Option 1 is our existing sub-assembly line, whilst Option 2 would be our proposed investment in new automated machines. Each option has a cash outflow over the next five years. Whilst Option 1 would not require a large cash outflow now, it has the same level of cash flows we are currently spending to maintain the line. In contrast, Option 2 demands a large cash outflow now, but this would result in lower cash flows over the next five years. We compared both cash flow forecasts and arrived at a net cash flow, which is the amount of working capital we would save from the lower cash requirements of Option 2. A basic assumption is that the sub-assembly lineÃ¢â¬â¢s productivity would be constant, and that
Wednesday, September 25, 2019
The Potential for Energy Savings Firms in Singapore - Essay Example Singapore is one of the largest oil refiners in the world. It has a distinction of being the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s busiest bunkering port and the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s third-largest oil trader. The Asia Pacific oil prices are set by the Singapore oil price. Singapore has to buy all the oil resources needed for the country from abroad. Like any other country, Singapore is also facing the challenge to the sustained energy resources supply. Since the country depends solely on imported oil and gas for its energy needs, Singapore is highly vulnerable to the risk of loss of supply. The competition for energy resources between nations is tightening day by day. Hence the requirement of energy security is very crucial for the country. In the national energy policy report, Lim HNG Kiang, the Minister for trade and industry of the Singapore Government, says that Ã¢â¬Å"Moving forward, we need a holistic national energy policy framework to meet our objectives of economic competitiveness energy security and environmental sustainability. As a small island state with limited indigenous resources, a strong and growing economy is our best defense against high energy prices and climate change.Ã¢â¬ Ã The SingaporeÃ¢â¬â¢s energy system is largely based on imported oil and natural gas. In order to sustain their economic growth and support civilization, Singapore must take serious consideration of their energy sector and should have a clear view on energy security. There is a need to become more energy efficient. Alternative resources for energy can be utilized by Singapore, but the resources are limited. Turning to nuclear energy like major countries in the world is not easily possible for the small island city nation. For that, they should consider oceanic nuclear power plants in international waters. Biofuel and solar energy are the other two alternatives for SingaporeÃ¢â¬â¢s energy sector.
Tuesday, September 24, 2019
Acceptance of Homosexuality in the Society - Essay Example The above statistics and conclusions clearly point towards genetic factors involved in homosexuality. Even though the percentage has slight differences, both identical twins and fraternal twins shows the tendency of becoming homosexuals if they genetic elements of homosexuality. The possibility of existence of homosexuality gene is widely discussed at present. Ã¢â¬Å"Although biologists are still far from answering this question, scattered evidence for a possible gene influencing sexual orientation has recently encouraged scientists to map out a guide to future researchÃ¢â¬ (Is there a homosexuality gene?). Even though, such a gene has not been discovered yet, many of the biologists are confident of identifying such a gene which will answer all the questions related to the reasons of homosexuality. Ã¢â¬Å"Writing in the scientific journal Archives of Sexual Behavior, researchers from Queen Marys School of Biological and Chemical Sciences, and Karolinska Institutet in Stockholm report that genetics and environmental factors are important determinants of homosexual behaviorÃ¢â¬ (Homosexual behavior due to genetics and environmental factors). Homosexuality is common in military. This is not because of genetic factors, but because of the environmental factors. Soldiers are not getting any opportunities for heterosexual activities and they will rely on homosexuality for relieving their sexual energy. Sexual activities are not only a biological need, but also a psychological need. If not relived properly, sexual energy can create immense problems to the living things.
Monday, September 23, 2019
Letter to the editor - Essay Example These concerns have ever been raised in the in various social media but still the topic remains unexhausted. There are varied views held by different stakeholders in the society. Some parents recommend for increased adoption of recent technologies among the children and have even bought handsets for children to access the social media more easily. Some groups, however, have criticized the indulgence of the children in social media that would have negative impacts in their lives. As a matter of fact, the social media such as the televisions have far reaching impacts on the children yet are allowed to operate freely without restrictions! The televisions air advertisements that do not promote morals of the children. For instance, advertisement showing some children engaged in partying or drinking behaviors teach teenagers nothing good but rather creating awareness of immoral activities that do not inspire them achieve successful lives. Televisions need to involve teenagers in choosing what is morally right for displaying to the viewers. Some television channels are after making money and care less for the morals of children. This is because the immoral adverts pay huge amounts of money and the television media could reap high profits. To combat these practices, the development of media act is necessary in order to regulate these activities by the television media to promote a better future for the teenagers. The activities of the television service providers h ave minimum regulation and this limits interventions of state authorities. The developments in the social media have also enabled the uncontrolled monitoring of the children access to unwanted content. There are very many social network platforms used by teenagers at the back of parentsÃ¢â¬â¢ knowledge. Consequently, the parents would not know the information shared by the children in order to impose restrictive measures. For instance, the parents are aware of the Facebook social
Sunday, September 22, 2019
Farmers dbq Essay In the late nineteenth century, twenty years after the Homestead Act, farmers used their land in the western plains to produce both crops and profits. The farmers of this time struggled in the agricultural way of life by facing economic and political obstacles that were impossible to avoid, requiring them to do something about their complaints. Although the farmers had plausible arguments for most of their criticisms, their beliefs of the silver standard and overproduction sometimes could not be backed up. However, farmers continued to struggle between inevitable issues like the currency debate, constant debt and rising costs. The debate over United States currency was a huge obstacle for farmers to overcome because they were in direct relation to the money crisis. In 1890 and 1892 with the Ocala and Omaha Platforms, farmers wanted free and unlimited coinage of silver so they could pay off any debt. A chart showing United States Population and Money in Circulation in 1865-1895 (Document C), shows how after a period of less money in circulation in the 1870s was resolved in the 1880s by the Bland-Allison Act which was later replaced by the Sherman Silver Purchase Act in 1890. Both of these acts were passed in Congress to provide free coinage of silver. The reasoning for the silver standard in the Populist platform in 1892 (Document A) was justified by the same reasoning as William Jennings Bryan in his Ã¢â¬Å"Cross of GoldÃ¢â¬ speech. Both describe how the conspiracy that the gold standard is better because England still uses it questions why America became an independent nation. However, the farmers still remained defeated on the currency debate because of the gold bug president gaining control of office. One of the biggest struggles for the farmers was not being able to pay off debt. They borrowed extravagant amounts of money from the bank at high interest rates, but this complaint was reasonable because one could not be a farmer without taking these risks. During Grover ClevelandÃ¢â¬â¢s second non-consecutive year in office a horrible four-year depression occurred called the Panic of 1893. This panic was caused by over speculation in the stock market and over expansion of railroads; both of these decisions made by the eastern president, Cleveland. As depicted in A FarmerÃ¢â¬â¢s Voice, a Chicago newspaper, (Document D) an eastern leader, Cleveland, takes his western slaves, the farmers, to the courthouse because the farms have been foreclosed. Farm foreclosures, a twenty percent unemployment rate and the cause for Cleveland to return to the gold standard, were effects of the Panic of 1893. Ultimately, this depression added to the unavoidable obstacle of debt.
Saturday, September 21, 2019
FMI Studies in Obesity Obesity: insights from fMRI imaging studies Abstract One-third of the US adult population is obese. Obesity is associated with serious medical complications and costs a lot of money. In my paper, we will study this phenomena with fMRI (functional magnetic resonance imaging) when subjects were at resting state (subjects were instructed simply to keep their eyes closed and to not think of anything in particular). Before this, we postulate that there will be disruption in neural circuits, which result in obesity. There are four circuits that we mainly focus on: (a) reward, located in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) and the ventral pallidum; (b) motivation/drive, located in the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) and the subcallosal cortex; (c) memory and learning, located in the amygdala and the hippocampus; and (d) control, located in the prefrontal cortex and the anterior cingulate gyrus (CG). We used SPM, which based on Matlab, to analyse our data, and processed the results by GCA (Granger causality analysis). Through it, we will get the connection between two ROIs(region of interesting). Key words: obesity; fMRI; resting state; GCA(Granger causality analysis) Introduction Obesity is a global problem with the improvement of our life. There are one-third of US adult population who is obese, whose body mass index(BMI)Ã¢â° ¥30 kg*m-2. Undoubtedly, obesity costs a lot because it is associated with serious diseases(e.g. diabetes, heart disease, fatty liver and some cancers)[2,3]. What lead to obesity are complex and ambiguity, such as social and cultural factors, environments that promote unhealthy eating habits and physical inactivity, individual factors, etc . Obesity with long time can result in function changes in human brain, but we do not know how this works. New imaging technologies such as positron emission tomography (PET) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) have provided new ways to investigate the relationship of human brain. Much of previous studies were based on PET images which focus on the brain dopamine system, they found that there are different between normal and obese in DA system. Methods Based on previous studies, we study function changes of human brain by fMRI. On account of discover that others found before, we support some hypotheses that obesity can result in difference between normal and obese. We focused on four brain circuits in our research which were discussed in drug-addiction. As well, what we found maybe provide a method to treat obesity. There are two groups, one is normal and the other is obesity. The information of subjects are showed in Figure1. In our experiment, there were three groups, which were obesity before surgery and after one month, compared with the normal control. We collected data form TangDu Hospital. During scanning, subjects were asked for closing eyes Figure1:Ã Subjects Information. StandardDeviation(STD). Body Mass Index(BMI). Yale Food Addiction scale(YFAS). Sympton Check List 90(SCL90). without thinking anything but waking. Before scanning, they filled a questionnaire, which include depression, anxiety, and so on, to see their mental state. In this address, we just analysed the data that scanned before surgery and normal control. Obesity involved multiple brain circuits Obesity can result in multiple variation, however, there are four circuits which are very important in obesity: (a) reward, located in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) and the ventral pallidum; (b) motivation/drive, located in the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) and the subcallosal cortex; (c) memory and learning, located in the amygdala and the hippocampus; and (d) control, located in the prefrontal cortex and the anterior cingulate gyrus (CG). These circuits work together and change with experience[5,6]. Moreover, there are other circuits involved in obesity which we will study further. Four circuits in obesity We processed data through SPM, which is based on matlab. After that, we analysed the data by GCA(Granger Casual Analysis). At resting state, we found that there was abnormal in motivation/drive circuit which receded in obesity than normal (figure2). Because of the exception of motivation, it could lead to disorder of other circuits. In reward circuit, the saliency value to food stimulation was reset in obesity, which resulted in overeating to reach satisfy. Circuit of memory and learning maybe influence individual habit. When somebody who is overweight saw food or some place for more time. He or she would remember the stimulation and when he or she met it again, it would arouse memory to drive someone to get it. We also found that there was reduction in control circuit. Due to this reduction, obesity can not control their eating behavior very well even if they were full. BasedÃ Figure2:Result of GCA  . on these disorder, we postulate that long-term obesity destroyed human brain functionÃ through the top-down modulation. Vulnerability to obesity A challenging problem in the neurobiology of obesity is to understand why some individuals become obese while others do not. Genetic factors are estimated to contribute between 45% and 85% of the variability in BMI [3,4]. Beyond that, we hypothesize that decreased sensitivity of reward circuit and the disorder of control circuit in obesity would lead a subject more or less vulnerable to food. At the same time, the environment that subjects could get high calorie food was significant. Because of these findings, obese could lose fat by intervening the brain circuits or controlling the environment around obesity. Discussion In our study, we just focused on four brain circuits. There were other circuits which involved in obesity. In further study, we would find them and research their function. In the future, our discover maybe be applied to clinic treatment with less wounds. There are some limitation in our experiment, for example, we didnÃ¢â¬â¢t get the result of fMRI what was gotten when subjects were at tasking state(somebody lies on bed with seeing images which are about low or high calorie food). In the further research, we will combine these result and obtain an excellent conclusion. Acknowledgments This work was supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China. My tutor gave me help on many fronts. I have to appreciate upperclassmen who gave me help too. The doctors who scanned subjects, the subjects who coordinated our experiment and the authors who provided idea should be given great appreciation. Finally, thanking Dr. Karen for teaching me how to address our experiment. References  N.D. Volkow, Gene-Jack Wang and R.D. Baler, Reward, dopamine and the control of food intake: implications for obesity, Trends in Cognitive Sciences January 2011, Vol. 15, No. 1.  Finkelstein, E.A.et al.(2009) Annual medical spending attributable to obesity: payer-and service-specific estimates. Health Aff.28, w822Ã¢â¬âw831  Baessler, A.et al.(2005) Genetic linkage and association of the growth hormone secretagogue receptor (ghrelin receptor) gene in human obesity. Diabetes 54, 259Ã¢â¬â267  Silventoinen, K. and Kaprio, J. (2009) Genetics of tracking of body mass index from birth to late middle age: evidence from twin and family studies. Obes. Facts 2, 196Ã¢â¬â202  N. D. Volkow, J. S. Fowler, and Gene-Jack Wang,(2003) The addicted human brain: insights from imaging studies, PERSPECTIVE SERIES, 111:1444Ã¢â¬â1451.  N.D. Volkow, B. Rosen, and L.Farde, 1997. Imaging the living human brain: magnetic resonance imaging and positron emission tomography. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 94:2787Ã¢â¬â2788.  ReHofMRI1.0 (by Dr. HE Yong, free download from http://www.bic.mni.mcgill.ca/users/yonghe)  Mingzhou Ding, Yonghong Chen, Steven L. Bressler, Granger Causality: Basic Theory and ApplicationÃ¢â¬Å½ to Ã¢â¬Å½NeuroscienceÃ¢â¬ , Preprint submitted to Elsevier Science,2008.02.07.  Wen X, Liu Y, Yao L, Ding M (2013) Top-down regulation of default mode activity in spatial visual attention. J Neurosci 33(15): 6444 Ã¢â¬â6453  Mingzhou Ding, Yonghong Chen,(2006) Granger Causality: Basic Theory and Application to Neuroscience, Preprint submitted to Elsevier Science, arXiv:q-bio/0608035v1 Cai Weiwei
Friday, September 20, 2019
Apply AASB 1001 to Report: Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã The Financial Report 2004 of Coles Myer Ltd has proven that the company has obliged the Standard of AASB 1001 Accounting Policies. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã The report has satisfied relevance by Relevant financial information assisting users in making and evaluating decisions about the allocation of scarce resources(Statement of Financial Position-profit or loss). It assists them in making predictions about future situations and in forming expectations, or it plays a confirmatory role in respect of their past evaluations Financial information may be relevant because of its nature, itsnature and magnitude, or because of its magnitude in relation to its nature. Additional guidance on relevance is provided in SAC 3. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã The financial report has reliable financial information which faithfully conveys to users theunderlying transactions and other events that have occurred. For financial information to be reliable, it needs to be free from bias. Reliable financial information does not lead users to conclusions that serve particular needs, desires or preconceptions of the preparers of financial reports.This is see on the last page of the report where it has been signed by accountants and the AASB representatives. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã This financial report is able to compare aspects of an entity over time and compare aspects between entities at one time and over time. This implies that the recognition, measurement and presentation of transactions or other events need to be carried out in a consistent manner throughout an entity and over time for that entity, and that there needs to be consistency between entities in these regards. However, consistency should not impede the introduction of improved financial reporting. It is not acceptable for an entity to retain its accounting policies to the detriment of the concepts of relevance and reliability. Additional guidance on comparability is provided in SAC 3. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã The financial report of Coles Myer shows that it is on a going concern basis due to the Statement if Financial Performance by viewing the Revenues inflow and Expenses outflow and coming to a profit at the end of the financial year. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã The accrual basis recognises the financial effects of transactions or other events in the financial years in which they occur, to the extent that those financial effects can be recognised, irrespective of whether cash has been received or paid. Accrual accounting provides information about assets, liabilities, equity, revenues and expenses, and changes in them, that cannot be obtained by accounting only for cash receipts and payments.
Thursday, September 19, 2019
The Epic of Gilgamesh is a historic story of the king of Uruk, Gilgamesh. The story depicts the short lived friendship of Gilgamesh and Enkidu. The story begins as Shamat the harlot seduces Enkidu and convinces him to go to the city of Uruk and meet Gilgamesh. From that moment on, the two were very close. They planned a trip to the forest of cedars to defeat the monster known as Humbaba so that Gilgamesh could show his power to the citizens of Uruk. However, Enkidu tried Ã¢â¬Å"vainly to dissuadeÃ¢â¬ (18) Gilgamesh in going to the forest. Despite EnkiduÃ¢â¬â¢s plead, the two continued on their voyage to the forest where Humbaba lives. Once they arrived, they found the monster and killed him. They cut down trees, Ã¢â¬Å"then Enkidu builds a gigantic doorÃ¢â¬ ¦as a gift to Enlil.Ã¢â¬ (44) Upon their arrival to Uruk, Ishtar the goddess of sex, love and warfare wanted to wed Gilgamesh. In spite of this, Gilgamesh did not feel the same and did not wish to marry her. Ishtar was so upset with the decision of Gilgamesh that she sent down the Ã¢â¬Å"Bull of HeavenÃ¢â¬ (50) to kill him. The bull ultimately met itsÃ¢â¬â¢ demise when Gilgamesh and Enkidu killed it. Of all of the events that occurred, the gods were not pleased. After the bull was killed and the cedar trees were cut, Enkidu had to be seen by the gods in council. Thus, the decision that Enkidu must die because of these acts was established. (53) The death of his friend is unreal to Gilgamesh. Thorkild Jacobsen points out that Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬ ¦it touches him in all its stark reality, and Gilgamesh refuses to believe it.Ã¢â¬ (Thorkild Jacobsen, Ã¢â¬Å"And Death The JourneyÃ¢â¬â¢s End,Ã¢â¬ 191) Gilgamesh goes on to seek eternal life. Death had never been a topic he had to deal with. Jacobsen explains, Ã¢â¬Å"death, fear of death, has become an ob... ...ves after him. There is a measure of immortality in achievement, the only immortality man can seek.Ã¢â¬ (Jacobsen, 196) The whole reason Gilgamesh takes this journey to search for eternal life is due to the death of Enkidu, with whom he was close with. Before all of the events occurred, Gilgamesh had never thought about the topic of death. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s as if it never crossed his mind; as though he would live forever. He went through phases along his journey. The first was not accepting reality, the second was fighting for eternal life, and the last was accepting reality. Now, his aspirations for immortality are no longer apparent as he enters the last stage. Works Cited Thorkild Jacobsen, "'And Death the Journey's End': The Gilgamesh Epic" Ã¢â¬Å"The Epic of Gilgamesh,Ã¢â¬ trans. and ed. Benjamin R. Foster, A Norton Critical Edition, New York: W.W. Norton & Company, Inc., 2001
Wednesday, September 18, 2019
Billiards The history of billiards begins in the fourteenth century. The game was invented in Europe, but there was a conflict as to what country. The French believed that the English invented the game, but at the same time, the English thought the French did. In the end, a French billiards specialist found evidence that the game originated in France about the fourteenth century. The word "billiard" is derived from two French words, "billiart" and "bille". These two words mean "stick" and "ball". Put them together, and you get stick-ball or pool as it's called these days. At first the game was played outside, but during the winter it got too cold so the game was moved inside onto large tables. After a couple of years, green cloth was installed on the bed of the table to make an illusion of the grass outside. The sticks used at the time were large, and men used slightlycurved sticks while the women used straight, narrow ones. The sticks weren't used as they are today to hit the ball but rather to push the balls around the table, similar to the game of shuffle board. As the game got more popular, as it is today, the sticks got narrower and easier to use (Billiards, http). A few games today are similar to billiards, such as shuffleboard, and the same equipment - stick and balls. One of the most important tools to playing any game of this type is the table. In the fourteenth century, the length of the tables was much longer than today becuase they were used instead of playing outside. Today the sized of the tables varies all over the worl. The dimensions range anywhere from nine by four and a half feet to ten by five feet (Ã¢â¬Å"Billiards,Ã¢â¬ Colliers). Another tool used to play the game is the cue stick. The cue srick weighs in a range of twelve to twenty-two ounces, and the straighter the cue, the better. At the end of the cue is a leather tip, which is used to hit the ball with great accuracy. If the stick were to hit the ball with the leather tip chalked, then a better shot would be made rather than one without the chalked end. As most people now know, the chalk is used to give a better shot. The chalk is a blue color and comes in a little square inch type cube. Another item needed to play a game of billiards is the balls, fifteen object balls and one cue ball. The cue ball is the only ball that is to be hit
Tuesday, September 17, 2019
RENEWABLE ENERGYPotential Renewable Energy Sources for KuwaitKuwait Ã¢â¬Ës solution to supplying enforcement to the current grid capacity and dependability is by researching the assorted available options of renewable energy. Some of the major renewable signifiers of energy being utilised all over the universe include solar, geothermic, air current and hydro energy. Based on the state Ã¢â¬Ës climatic conditions, the possible beginnings of energy available for Kuwait are as follows.Solar EnergyA cardinal beginning of energy that Kuwait could use is solar energy. Solar energy involves change overing the freely available and abundant sunshine to electrical power. The state experiences high temperatures and really cheery yearss between June and September ( Salam & A ; Mazrooei, 2007 ) . Kuwait can therefore comfortably prolong solar power production throughout the summer. Solar as a signifier of energy can be looked at from two angles: thermal-where solar energy is used for warming and photovoltaic ( PV ) which involves solar energy being used for power production. The first signifier of energy involves change overing the heat from the Sun into electricity, which is used in places for H2O warming and desalinization. Use in this manner would ensue in much economy in footings of outgo on energy. This signifier of energy can be used to provide for all family energy demands. It can besides be used in street lighting every bit good as in industries for nutrient production. It requires small cost to put up and keep a solar energy system in your house. Apart from this being a cheaper option, it is environmental friendly in that it does non breathe any harmful gases. The 2nd option of using sunshine, photovoltaic, would necessitate more complex system put in topographic point. This option is in fact under consideration by the Gulf Cooperation Council ( GCC ) to be implemented in Kuwait. Plans are underway to put $ 3.6 billion in Kuwait entirely to accomplish photovoltaic energy in the state ( Alnaser 2008 ) . Using solar energy is expected to cut down the part of Kuwait to the universe Ã¢â¬Ës emanation of Carbon Monoxide which presently stands at about 0.2 % ( Alnaser, 2008 ) . Alnaser ( 2008 ) has farther argued that globally, there has been an mean addition of 40 % in footings of the volumes of energy produced from solar. There is still more room for betterment because the sum of energy produced in a individual twenty-four hours is adequate to prolong life for old ages. Solar as a beginning of energy has a major defect in that it is susceptible to break and therefore non stable ( ABB, 2011 ) . The supply may be low during the cloudy and showery yearss. The power produced may therefore non be efficient and dependable for critical utilizations such as in production industries. Progresss in engineering should nevertheless be able to work out this job in future. A more complex system that is able to hive away the solar energy and giving the user the control of the units being consumed is being explored. ABB ( 2011 ) has explained how lithium-ion batteries can be integrated with solar energy to supply back up during low production periods. Previous efforts by the Kuwait authorities to ship on solar energy undertaking were thwarted by sand storm and the predominating big sum of dust on possible tapping countries. The authorities has at times appeared non to be excessively enthusiastic to the thought as it Ã¢â¬Å"fails to give fiscal inducements to those willing to prosecute such projects.Ã¢â¬ ( Hashem, 2011 ) . There is a renewed attempt by the state Ã¢â¬Ës authorities to put in researching the solar energy options. Recently, the state Ã¢â¬Ës Chamber of Commerce and Industry, ( KCCI ) , revealed a government-lead undertaking that would be $ 120bn. The undertaking is to be implemented within the following five old ages. It involves the authorities encompassing solar energy as portion of its development programs. ( Hashem, 2011 ) . The authorities has besides shown involvements by partnering with other states Ã¢â¬Ë authoritiess to implement solar undertakings all over the state. Fortune CT from UK and Toyota T Suchu Corporation from Japan are some of the international companies actively take parting in nidation of solar energy in different parts in Kuwait. Solar energy has small consequence on the environments as non gases are emitted. The costs of geting a solar system are besides cheaper compared to geothermal and hydro. Keeping the system costs about nil as no fuel is used.Wind EnergyWind energy involves using the strength of air current to travel big treadmills which in bend rotate to bring forth power. Just like solar energy, this signifier of energy is renewable and has small injury to the environment. Already, states like Brazil are using this signifier of energy ABB ( 2011 ) . Brazil utilizes the offshore air current to bring forth energy which is so transmitted in the normal power lines for 100s of kilometres. States with similar conditions forms including North African and other Middle East states are in the procedure of implementing air current power usage. It is projected that in old ages to come, weave energy will be used to bring forth about 12 % the planetary energy and in the procedure a important alternate energy begin ning in the coming old ages ( Alnaser, 2008 ) . Kuwait Ã¢â¬Ës air current velocity is above the 1400 per hr threshold which is considered as the lower limit air current velocity that can prolong economically feasible air current production. Salam & A ; Mazrooei ( 2007 ) have noted that in recent old ages, Kuwait has been sing increasing air current velocities. There has been an addition of wind velocities of up to 0.21 ms-1 between 1999 and 2004. The state could look at the positive side of this consequence. Windmills could be set up at strategic topographic points to assist pin down the air current energy and change over it to electrical energy. Alnaser ( 2008 ) has projected that Kuwait would be bring forthing a important sum of air current and solar energy by the twelvemonth 2015. For Kuwait to accomplish this signifier of energy, a complex system made up of several air current turbines will hold to be put in topographic point at strategic countries. An ideal country would be on the sea shore to capitalise on the sea zephyr common in such topographic points. The acquisition of these turbines every bit good as puting up the workss will be rather a batch. The authorities has to therefore supply some support or offer incentive to private investor who may be willing to set about the venture. Wind programs have besides been known to hold a negative consequence on the wildlife in the environing country particularly the birds. The building sites of air current power workss require an country that is free from wind obstructor. With edifices built across the state, happening such a topographic point may be a bit difficult. Economically sustainable production of air current power requires that there be blowy conditions throughout which might non ever be the instance.Geothermal energyGeothermal energy involves using the heat on the land to give energy. Kuwait has the potency of making geothermic energy that is yet to be to the full exploited. Plans are underway to increase this option of energy coevals. The Kuwait authorities has given a spell in front to contractor to build a H2O works, Al-Zour North power works that is expected to bring forth about 4,800 megawatts of power ( Izzak, 2010 ) . The authorities is besides be aftering to increase production in bing workss by replac ing old systems with more efficient 1s. Izzak, ( 2010 ) has explained that the authorities of Kuwait intends to replace about 18 per centum of the transformers presently being used with more efficient 1s. Other Countries in the Middle East have besides been dallying with the thought of geothermic energy. In UAE for illustration, Masdar, a pro environment preservation company has been transporting trials on how to implement a geothermic undertaking in Abu Dhabi since 2009. The execution was expected to get down instantly after the testing. A major set vaulting horse to geothermal energy is that the procedure is a bit expensive to implement every bit compared to implementing solar energy. This is because geothermic electricity coevals depends on H2O ; yet this H2O has to be gotten through desalinization of saltwater, which is a dearly-won procedure. Initial set up of the works is besides dearly-won. Another job is that Kuwait is rather hot. Achieving the geothermic energy requires some signifier of chilling. This chilling is rather impossible to accomplish without breathing harmful gases to the environment. The deepnesss at which the hot stones are located vary from topographic point to topographic point. Geologists have to make thorough analyze to set up such facts and besides to measure whether such a undertaking is economically executable in Kuwait. Once a geothermal works is up and running, care and running costs are comparatively low.HydroelectricityHydroelectric power productions involve big volumes of high force per unit area H2O being used to turn big turbines to bring forth energy. Kuwait experiences a low sum of rainfall with the mean being about 115 millimeters ( Salam & A ; Mazrooei, 2007 ) . The state is by and large dry with few rivers. For the state to prolong an economical degree of hydroelectric energy production, it must use other beginnings: chiefly saltwater. For this to go on, a fuel devouring procedure of salination has to be carried out which might be expensive to set about. Merely like the other aforementioned options, Hydro works set up requires a batch of resources to put up. Such a undertaking would therefore require substantial support from either the authorities or private sector. This signifier of energy would necessitate edifice of dike. This would ensue in interfering with the wildlife bing in the rivers every bit good as the environing country.Bio FuelAnother possible beginning of renewable energy is bio fuel. This is a sort of fuel that is obtained from biomass. The energy produced can be used for warming and lighting in the rural countries. It can be besides used for cooking at both rural and urban scene. Bio Fuel energy offers the merely alternate to fossil fuel as a renewable C based beginning of fuel that exist is important measure ( Klass, 2004 ) . Klass, ( 2004 ) has argued that the degrees of natural gas would non be sufficient to prolong the demand during the beginning of the twenty-first century. Such a state of affairs would coerce the universe to look elsewhere for their energy supply. This could necessitate the stakeholders in the sector to switch to undeveloped biomass as the alternate beginning of energy. Kuwait can place herself for such an contingency by puting in the relevant biomass transition engineerings. The state could, for case, put in power workss which use wood energy which is burned to bring forth steam. This steam is in bend channeled to turbines to bring forth energy. To prolong this manner of energy production, there requires a sufficient supply of biomass. Engendering workss that produce high sum of biomass can accomplish this. Klass, ( 2004 ) has identified peculiar works species that can accomplish aid achive this. Such workss include the alone herbaceous biomass workss and other intercrossed vegetations, which he refers to as Ã¢â¬Ëenergy workss Ã¢â¬Ë . Klass, ( 2004 ) has explained a manner of guaranting a changeless supply of biomass for biofuel. This is by guaranting that a new growing of biomass will readily come up in topographic point of the biomass collected for energy production. Bio fuel usage has an extra advantage in that it has does non foul the environment and displaces the usage of fuel. When used in concurrence with coal or wood, bio fuel reduces the sum of harmful gasses released to the environment. Bio fuel usage could besides cut down the rate at which dodo fuel is being depleted from Earth.Ethanol fuelClosely related to bio fuel is usage of ethyl alcohol. This ethyl alcohol as gotten from workss such as sugar cane, wheat and maize and can be used for fueling vehicles. Puting up workss for ethyl alcohol harvest home is comparatively inexpensive. However, acquiring a changeless supply of ethanol bring forthing workss would necessitate a considerable resource allotment. The procedure of production of energy is besides quit dearly-won, as it requires fuel. The fuel used in bring forthing ethyl alcohol may besides ensue in production of gases, which may foul the environment.DecisionThe potency is at that place for Kuwait to research other option of ener gy production. The implicit in factor in all these options is some kind of support for research every bit good as initial set up. The authorities of Kuwait can make this either straight or by offering fiscal inducement. Exhaustive cost-benefit analysis is besides necessary to set up the viability of each option. Any option that Kuwait takes would an of import enforcement to the current grid capacity which is dominated by natural gas and oil.
Monday, September 16, 2019
Managerial decision-making Problem avoiders Problem solvers Problem seekers Approaches to decision making Classical decision model Behavioral decision model Judgmental decision model 2. With references to decision-making theory covered in the chapter, describe the type of managerial decision-making evident in this case, and the conditions under which decisions were made. Managerial Decision Making *Problem avoidably problem solvers *Problem seekers Decision conditions: *Certain environment *Risk environment uncertain environment 3.Evaluate the decisions made in the case in relation to the classical, behavioral and Judgmental heuristics approaches to decision-making that are outlined In the chapter. Which model do you believe best describes the situation and subsequent decision-making process In this case? Justify your answer? Approaches to decision making Classical decision model Judgmental decision model Case decision *Classical decision model Problem: it was the flood that damage B risbane and PhysicsPossible alternative: Not releasing flood waters. Consequently threatened stability of dam Optimizing decision: Release of flood waters being aware of potential damage. SOOT Analysts: Strengths: *New technology *They set priorities *Manage time Weakness: Lack of communication Misunderstanding Misconduct Problem solving Crisis Opportunities: *Professional engineer *Employment Threats: Natural disaster (climate change) Damage roads and homes. Conclusion People should make wise decision to save the life's of the others.
Sunday, September 15, 2019
Elizabeth Bishop was not just a simple poet for me during her time. Her family background contributes to her life and career in a significant manifestation. Because she was not raised by her own parents, she used to perceive things in a broader knowledge Ã¢â¬â accepting everything that she has despite of her parentsÃ¢â¬â¢ incapability of nurturing and loving her as she grows up. This is what I like about Bishop. Despite of her shortcomings and emptiness in some part of her being, she tried to perform better in her lifetime that gave her different achievements and recognitions in the literary world. Her life during her childhood when she used to go to different relatives because her father died while her mother was hospitalized taught her how to adjust to different people and knowing them at the same time. She knew that her relatives especially her aunt loves her so much, more than what she expected but she still seek for the love of her parents. For the reason that she could not obtain the love that she wanted, she makes herself busy to many things that she thought would help her to become a better person even if her parents are not around her. The way she was not raised by her own parents and could not able to give her the strength in everything she does manifests during her college days when she could not pursue her dreams in music for she is afraid to face the crowd. Through writing, she found herself successful behind her narrators or characters in her poems. In writing, she was not afraid to face her readers for she would just write and let her readers feel her through her poems. As a reader, I can probably say that I can feel her personality because of the way on how she attacked her poems during her point of views and the way she related fiction to reality is the most considerable things why I admired her. Aside from the fact that I liked her because she is a woman like me, I ca relate to many things that happened to her like losing her parents at an early age. I also love the way she writes her poems. As she focused most of her poems on nature, she illustrates the reality within it. Through reading her poems, we can see how much our modern period and nature have changed from then to now. In this case, we could be able to relate what the history tells us and how would these aspects recount to our modern world. It is an important point of attack because the readers would have the power to describe the past and acknowledge it in the present situation of the society and nature. The most significant poems that are close to my heart are BishopÃ¢â¬â¢s poems entitled Ã¢â¬Å"The MapÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"FloridaÃ¢â¬ . As I read these two poems, it reminds me of many things in life. It gives me the knowledge on how to perceive life in a positive way despite of all the odds within my journey. Because I know that life is a never-ending journey and responsibility, I have learned how to take each day as one step as a time to what I believed and my purpose in living. Critical Essay Elizabeth BishopÃ¢â¬â¢s poem entitled Ã¢â¬Å"The MapÃ¢â¬ is about the description of the difference between the historian and map-makers in terms of their way of tracking the geographical event and scenario between the North and the West. The author describes profoundly the setting where beautiful things emerge. There are no negativities within the poem. Everything looks good. That is why as the readers read this poem they would feel the goodness of history and reality at the same time. The author showed and described abundant images and elements to show the life of the poem. Even if there are some disputes between the historians and the map-makers, the author did not show the negativities within it. As an irony of the poem, she used positive images and elements to show the problem within it. It was like the character of the author. Bishop can be said as the narrator of her poems. Even if she felt bad, she would hide it in front of many people showing the good things within her while she hides the dilemmas in her life. Another significant thing that we need to consider in this poem is the femininity of the poem. The author used feminine images and elements that showed the essence of being a woman. Some of the images that exist in this poem are lovely bays, peninsulas, yard-goods, and glass. Lovely bays signify beauty and keenness, peninsulas signifies curve or silhouette of a woman, yard-goods signifies femininity, and glass signifies fragility of a woman. These images can be seen as a formation of a woman as men define them whom to be the historians and map-makers. It means that men created women as what the bible showed that women came from the piece of men through the conception of Even from Adam. Like the poem Ã¢â¬Å"The MapÃ¢â¬ the poem entitled Ã¢â¬Å"FloridaÃ¢â¬ is a free-verse poem or much of the acknowledgement as prose-poetry. The author did not use rhyming or syllabication schemes in her poems. She used free-verse without limitation of the rhymes and syllables. It shows that Bishop did not like limitations. She makes sure that she maximized all the opportunities that he has whether in personal or career aspect of his life. When it comes to her poems, he did not limit herself to many things because she wants to show everything that is within her reach. BishopÃ¢â¬â¢s poems show that she loves nature as its best. She perceives nature an important tool in her writings. In the poem Florida, it was just as simple description of the setting of Florida if we look at the literal attack of the author. She illustrates the characteristic and nature of Florida. She did not incorporate any human perspective in this poem. Everything is meant for natureÃ¢â¬â¢s purpose and is not from man-made signification. Bishop is also open to many cultures in her poem. She described different images and elements that came from different cultures such as China and India. It means that she is not a discriminator in this aspect because as what we see in her chosen culture, which is China and India. Both of these came from Asia. Asia are known from different kinds of discriminations whether in language or in color. However, as what we see in her poem, she used these cultures as incorporation of the culture of Florida. Because the poem is free-flowing, the concepts and ideas are also free-flowing. It incorporates different kinds of ideologies that set the positive mood of the poem yearning for good realization and judgment of living in Florida. References Bishop, E. Ã¢â¬Å"The MapÃ¢â¬ Bishop, E. Ã¢â¬Å"FloridaÃ¢â¬
Saturday, September 14, 2019
Questions 1.The captain, Ahab wants revenge against the great white whale Moby Dick because he lost his leg to the whale. 2.Ishmael is the narrator. The first line is Ã¢â¬Å"Call me Ishmael.Ã¢â¬ 3.The two allusions are the names of Captain ahab and Ishmael. Referring to Captain Ahab: Ahab is a wicked king who goes against goes against GodÃ¢â¬â¢s will, Like how captain Ahab goes against the white whale. Referring to Ishmael: Ishmael means Ã¢â¬Å"outcastÃ¢â¬ or Ã¢â¬Å"wandererÃ¢â¬ like how he seams to be the only person who cares anything of the beauty of nature. 4.To Captain Ahab he all that is evil in the universe. To Starbuck, he is just an animal to be killed for oil. To Ishmael, he is nature and all itÃ¢â¬â¢s wonder, both beautiful and terrifing. 5.Melville wrote about whaling to create a cosmic allegory to show the unglamorous a whaling, he had a deep respect for nature and wanted to expose it. The industry was significant because it provided oil for lanterns, streetlamps, and machinery and was the main oil used. 6.Melville set sail for the south pacific when he was 21. 7.Melville befriended Nathaniel Hawthorne while writing Moby Dick. 8.The four harpooners represented different races and ethnic groups of the world bringing the Pequod to be like a symbol for the ship of state, a little democracy. 9.The Pequod is attacked by moby dick and is destroyed. Ahab was caught and shot out of the boat and vanished into the sea. Finally, Ishmael becomes the only survivor of the pequod, he floats around until he is rescued and picked up by another ship, The Rachel. 10.He was unemployed, desperately broke, and took a job as a customs inspector. He was forgotten by the public.Interview Questions to Ahab 1. What exactly did you do on the ship other than plot the death of Moby-Dick? 2. How did you keep up hope that you were actually going to encounter Moby-Dick again?3. How did you recognize and tell Moby Dick apart from all the the other whales in the world?4. Have you wanted to be the captain of a whaling ship your entire life? If not what profession did you aspire before?5. Avoiding sailor colloquial verbiage, can you describe the night of the incident with Moby Dick? Also, do you recommend anyone who is good at making ivory legs if this were to happen to anyone in the future?
Friday, September 13, 2019
Summary LEGO ( Based on the reading to answer the four questions) - Case Study Example Competition as a criterion for evaluating the different product lines and operations determines what products are the competitors involved in making. Such a criterion goes in hand with lessons learnt, in which LEGO identifies the different areas that require improvement, aimed towards the improvement of future performance. Changes in the marketplace for any product line determine the future that a particular product and organization takes. Regardless of the particular product line, changes are necessary for every organization, as a means of making improvements in areas that have failed, or those that never worked as per the required standards. Toy industry, is indeed an industry that requires significant changes in order to develop products that impress children more. Critical changes needed for the industry include increased innovation, which introduces new products, the establishment of an increased performance competition in the same industry. Additionally, changes contribute to the development of new technologies, an aspect that contributes towards the enhancement and improvement of efficiency and performance, as well as the improvement in quality of the products to meet the demands of the market. LEGO is facing a significant number of internal issues, which are currently affecting the organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s performance and competitiveness, and which require strategic planning to be effectively addressed. First is management. LEGO, previously, remained a successful player in the toy industry; however, with the continued growth of the company over the years, layers of complexities in operations have been added. Such challenges are attributes of poor leadership and management, and which can only be resolved through strategic planning. Another internal issue of great significance to LEGO is increased production wastes. CostsÃ¢â¬â¢ cutting is one of the best ways for an organization to increase its profit margins. LEGO currently experiences high
Thursday, September 12, 2019
Wk2 Progress a Assign. INTL304 - Assignment Example There are different types of sensor suites. These are the easiest way to monitor the things inside a building from any part of the world. An Orbit refers to a path of an object found in the space. There are four types of orbit of satellite sensor. The first one is satellite orbit; this satellite follows an elliptical path, round the earth. One complete revolution is known as the orbital period. Geostationary orbits, this occurs when a satellite follows an orbit that is parallel to the equator that moves in a similar direction as the earthÃ¢â¬â¢s rotation. Near polar orbits, refers to the orbital plane that is inclined at an angle with respect to the rotation of the earthÃ¢â¬â¢s axis. Sun-synchronous orbits, follows an orbit whose altitude is in a way that the satellite will pass over a location at a local solar time. Technical intelligence is not easy because it not possible to collect complete information from the adversaries. This is because the chips may be down, and some of the strategies may fail. Designing a satellite of balanced force has been another drawback of the airborne sensors platform in collecting technical intelligence. 2 Resolution is the clarity of an image. It is the ability of the sensors to see the smallest objects in an image. Resolution determines the sharpness of an image. Spatial resolution refers to the ability of measuring how closely lines can be resolved in an image. Spatial resolution is limited by diffraction. The pixel spacing the ground sample of an image on the earthÃ¢â¬â¢s surface is small compared to resolvable spot size.
Wednesday, September 11, 2019
Value and Ethics in the workplace - Essay Example In global environment, an individual reconciles persona;, organizational and cultural values from national and international traditions and unique personal vision of life and business practices. In the past few decades, global corporations have generated a significant number of economic, moral, and political questions. Far too often, discussions of these issues have been inappropriately separated from each other. The moral behavior of transnational corporations and the implications that transnationals have for the nation-state are two such discussions. There is the importance of the moral conditions within which institutions, such as corporations and the state, may act when we note, among other things, the special powers they have, the temptations to which they may be subjected, and the competitive pressures under which politicians and transnational corporations operate (Boatright, 1997). In short, both individuals and institutions are affected by the moral conditions which surround them. Within complex situations defined by the preceding conditions, we might expect that the behavior of individuals (natural or artificial) would tend to be moral. In short, under such conditions individuals may anticipate being held morally responsible for what they do (or bring about), either in the sense that they intentionally brought it about or were in a situation such that they could have effected certain actions and their consequences. Their behavior would also be that of moral citizens to the extent that an additional condition is also fulfilled (Beauchamp and Bowie 2003). Individuals derive personal values from personal vision of life and life experiences based on national and cultural moral values. In the global context, individuals view themselves as subject to a commitment or loyalty to the community or society of which they are members. This commitment is to certain values and principles shaped by the historical
Tuesday, September 10, 2019
Phineas Taylor Barnum's American Museum 1842 to 1868 - Research Paper Example While in New York, Barnum purchased a museum and renamed it after himself. With the museum, Barnum found a platform which he used to promote hoaxes and human curiosities. Barnum began his entertainment career in New York. Barnum gets credited for revolutionizing and legitimizing spectacle. Barnum purchased and exhibited the Joice Heth. Joice Heth was an almost paralyzed and blind slave woman (Barnum and Cook 108). Barnum claimed the woman to have been over 160 years old and a supposed nurse to George Washington. Thousands got drawn to view Heith by paying an admission price. He toured the south with a small circus between 1836 and 1837. This circus tour appeared to be preparation for him to purchase his own museum with which he made a fortune. In 1841, he bought the Scudder American museum which he renamed to Barnum American museum. Barnum upgraded the museum building and added more exhibits making the museum a popular showplace in the process. Barnum added flags to the roof edge of the museum, and this helped attract attention during the day. A strolling garden got made out of the roof during the upgrade. The place then got lit up with limelight, which had just become invented then. His main idea revolved around making the museum an advertisement in itself. In the museum, Barnum filled it with a surfeit of exhibits and activities. Exhibits and activities within the museum revolved around panoramas, dioramas, scientific instruments and modern appliances. Through the museum, Barnum got to introduce his first major hoax which became known as the Feejee mermaid (Barnum 56). The Feeje mermaid was a creature that had the tail of a fish and a monkeyÃ¢â¬â¢s head. Barnum justified hoaxes such as this claiming they were advertisements used to draw attention to the museum. The museum also exhibited a dwarf named general Tom Thumb. The dwarf got claimed to be the smallest person walking the earth, and he got used to amuse the public. The museum also exhibited a number o f exotic animals that included beluga whales, a hat claimed to be worn by Ulysses Grant, a tree trunk where Jesus and his disciples sat, giants, fat boys, a dog that could knit, flea circus and performances by magicians and fortune tellers, Uncle TomÃ¢â¬â¢s cabin and minstrel adaptations of biblical tales. The museum gets reported to have received over 38milion visitors between 1841 and 1865. Visitors got charged a twenty five cent admission charge. The visitors got to view a revolving set of attractions at the museum (Cottrell 19). BarnumÃ¢â¬â¢s credit to show business gets associated with professionalism, public relations through advertisements and quality. Characters that provided dubious shows got thrown out of Barnum American museum. Barnum defended his hoax shows by claiming that the public had to first get attracted to the museum, and then later get provided with sensational entertainment while in the museum building. Barnum used newspaper advertisements and handbills to promote the museum (Barnum and Cook 88). The museum not only provided shows but also educational teachings. The museumÃ¢â¬â¢s theater which got known as the Ã¢â¬Ëlecture roomÃ¢â¬â¢ got used by Barnum in providing temperance reforms and Shakespearean dramas. Barnum gets recognized by early historians as instrumental in the development of urban culture in the nineteenth century. The museum became the first of its kind in offering entertainment and amusement together with moral uplift and