Saturday, December 28, 2019
Sea cliffs are high, rocky coasts that plunge down to the seas edge. These harsh environments are subject to the battering of waves, wind, and salt-laden sea spray. Conditions on a sea cliff vary as you move up the cliff, with waves and sea spray playing larger parts in shaping the communities at the base of a sea cliff while wind, weather, and sun exposure are the driving forces that shape the communities towards the top of a sea cliff. Sea cliffs provide ideal nesting habitat for many species of sea birds such as gannets, cormorants, kittiwakes, and guillemots. Some cliff-nesting species form large, dense nesting colonies that stretch across the face of the cliff, taking advantage of every inch of available rock. At the base of the cliff, the pommeling by the surf prohibits all but the most tenacious of animals from surviving there. Mollusks and other invertebrates such as crabs and echinoderms occasionally find shelter behind rocky outcrops or tucked within tiny crevices. The top of the sea cliff is often more forgiving than its base and can be frequented by wildlife from surrounding terrain. Often, the craggy edges at the top of a cliff provide ideal habitat for small mammals, reptiles, and birds. Habitat Classification: Ecozones: Terrestrial / Marine Ecosystem: Beaches / Coasts Habitat: Sea Cliffs Wildlife: Birds, mammals, invertebrates, reptiles. Where to See: Sea cliffs are located along rocky coastlines throughout the world.
Thursday, December 19, 2019
Works ethics guides the behavior of the work force. All firms and businesses have a set of rules or guidelines influencing or guiding their organizational behavior. Further, policies that provide guidance on ethical behaviors in are influenced by different factors across nations. Thus, the workforce of nations subscribes to work ethics which possesses or exhibits some similarities as well as differences. The differences could be brought about by the uniqueness in the cultural background of workers in different countries (Beng-Huat 200). Furthermore, the political systems that form the foundation of governance in the respective countries have far-reaching effects on ethical policies enacted in the country. In summary, intuitional, political, economic, religious, societal and philosophical notions influence the evolution and emergence of a business enterprise in any country. The interaction of these factors brings about the various similarities and differences in work ethics in differe nt countries. Hence, the United States, Malaysia, and Singapore possess some similarities and differences in their work ethics. There is a similarity in the way people view work ethics in the three countries. Human rights are taken as a priority in the implementation of these set of values. Every individual worker, in whichever firm, is tasked with the responsibility of respecting human rights. The attitudes held by all individuals towards ethics have a common goal of making sure that the clientsShow MoreRelatedEnvironmental Regulations in Thai and Singapore Essay1012 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesRunning head: UNIT 5 INDIVIDUAL PROJECT LAW AND ETHICS INTÃ¢â¬â¢L BUSINESS Kelly Camara Unit 5 Individual Project International Business Law amp; Ethics AIU Online January 4, 2011 Abstract In this paper I will be describing the levels of environmental regulations in Thailand and Singapore. 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Wednesday, December 11, 2019
Throughout the novel, Ã¢â¬ËLord of the FliesÃ¢â¬â¢, William Golding is able to link the many aspects of our own world through the various characters he creates. One of these aspects is leadership, which plays a vital role in the novelÃ¢â¬â¢s microcosmic society, as it does in our own society. Golding uses leadership to convey his ideologies about human nature. Golding believes that all humans are fundamentally flawed, that all humans are evil and are capable of inflicting evil upon others. Only the law and order of our society hold back the flaws that all humans inherently possess. Golding uses the mixed feelings that he has about leadership to reveal his philosophy about human nature and other flawed aspects of our society. The Second World War, which Golding was a part of, brought about his pessimism of human nature. He was horrified at what himself and others did during the war. He gradually learned to see all human nature as savage and unforgiving, the darkness of mans heart; it is in all of us. The qualities of a good leader are universally accepted. The leader has to have control over his followers. He has to demand respect. The leader also has to be able to persuade his followers to follow him without taking away from his beliefs and views. A good leader also has to be able to be strong, mentally more than physically. He needs to be able to stand his ground and strongly believe in what he feels is right. A good leader also has to believe in himself. If a leader does not believe in himself, then who will? A leader has to be assertive and does not need to back down from anything. The two main characters in this novel express some of these characteristics, one character more than the other. There are always people, when in a group, who show and possess superior leadership attributes than others. The strongest, mentally and physically, tend to have the greatest influence over others. Sometimes the strongest person is not necessarily the best choice. Authors, including Golding, often show how humans select the strongest person, to give us an understanding of the influence people can possess over others. Golding has two stand out characters in the beginning of the novel who each show their own, but very different leadership skills. However Golding believes that there is no such thing as a perfect leader, and that every type of leadership is flawed in some way. Golding intends to use these two characters to highlight the two types of leadership that he tries to present in the novel. The first character introduced to us is Ralph, who in my opinion is presented as the better leader. His capacity for leadership is evident from the beginning, Ã¢â¬Å"Shut up,Ã¢â¬ said Ralph absently. He lifted the conch. Ã¢â¬Å"Seems to me we ought to have a chief to decide things. He then proceeds to be voted as the group leader, over Jack, mainly due to the fact that he was the one that initially blew the conch, Ã¢â¬Å"They obeyed the summons of the conch, partly because Ralph blew it, and he was big enough to be a link with the adult world of authorityÃ¢â¬ ¦. Ã¢â¬ It is obvious from the offset that Golding has made Ralph the symbol of democracy in the novel. Golding shows his feeling about democracy as describing democratic voting as a Ã¢â¬ËtoyÃ¢â¬â¢. The other littleÃ¢â¬â¢uns follow Ralph as he is the only link they have left to the civilised world. At the beginning and throughout the novel, Ralph is the primary representative of order, society and leadership among the group. Ralph starts off well at attempting to make a new society; he firmly believes that the most important thing in this situation is being rescued. He creates a fire beacon, for cooking, heat and rescue. The signal fire can be viewed as a sign of hope the hope the boys have to return to society. When the flames dance brightly, it shows the enthusiasm they hold for the idea of being rescued. However, as the fire grows dim, it reflects the attitude of the boys and their loss of morale. The signal fire can also be viewed as the boys link to the civilized world. As long as the fire continues burning, it suggests not only that the boys want to return to society, but also that they are still using their common sense. He understands the essentials that a society must have to keep afloat and he knows what must be done in order for the survival of the boys. He works vigilantly to keep the groups focus on the hope of rescue. It is at the second assembly that we see Ralph firmly asserting his authority, Ã¢â¬Å"except by meÃ¢â¬ . It is also the first time that Jack struggles with RalphÃ¢â¬â¢s authority. As the tension between Ralph and Jack continues to increases, we see more obvious signs of a potential struggle for power. Although Jack has been deeply envious of RalphÃ¢â¬â¢s power from the moment Ralph was elected, the two do not come into open conflict until the fourth chapter, when JackÃ¢â¬â¢s irresponsibility leads to the failure of the signal fire. When the fireÃ¢â¬âa symbol of the boysÃ¢â¬â¢ connection to civilizationÃ¢â¬âgoes out, the boysÃ¢â¬â¢ first chance of being rescued is thwarted. Ralph flies into a rage, indicating that he is still governed by desire to achieve the good of the whole group. But Jack, having just killed a pig, is too excited by his success to care very much about the missed chance to escape the island. Indeed, JackÃ¢â¬â¢s bloodlust and thirst for power have overwhelmed his interest in civilization. Whereas he previously justified his commitment to hunting by claiming that it was for the good of the group, now he no longer feels the need to justify his behaviour at all. Instead, he indicates his new orientation toward savagery by painting his face like a barbarian, leading wild chants among the hunters, and apologizing for his failure to maintain the signal fire only when Ralph seems ready to fight him over it. However, Ralph still has his shortcomings as a leader and isnÃ¢â¬â¢t always perfect as Golding is trying to show. One of his first mistakes was giving more control to Jack by making him leader of his hunters. This allows Jack and the choir boys to make their own rules and encourage the choir boys to stray away from RalphÃ¢â¬â¢s lead. When the beast is first introduced, Ralph doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t do a very good job of convincing the younger boys that there isnÃ¢â¬â¢t a beast on the island. He just sayÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Å"but there isnÃ¢â¬â¢t a beast. Ã¢â¬ Whereas Jack assures the younger boys that if there is a beast, heÃ¢â¬â¢d find it and kill it. The weight of leadership becomes oppressive for Ralph as the story continues; he is dutiful and dedicated, but his attempts to instil order and calm among the boys are decreasingly successful. Golding develops Ralphs particular concerns and insecurities. By showing him worrying over his perceived failures, Golding highlights RalphÃ¢â¬â¢s responsible, adult nature. Ralphs concern about his appearance, and particularly his grown-out hair, indicate his natural inclination toward the normality of civilization. Although Ralph demonstrates a more than sufficient intelligence, he also worries that he lacks Piggys genius, Ã¢â¬Å"if only I could step inside that fat head of hisÃ¢â¬ . Ralph eventually understands the importance of thought and how it can help him as a leader, Ã¢â¬Å"thought was a valuable thing, that got results Ã¢â¬ . The second type of leadership that Golding conveys through a character is the Dictator, Jack. Ralph treats all the boys with dignity and tries to work with them for the betterment of the society. On the opposite side of the scale, Jack does not treat any of the boys with the dignity that Ralph does. In chapter three Golding writes, in comparing JackÃ¢â¬â¢s and Ralph, They walked along, two continents of experience and feeling, unable to communicate. This shows how Golding is trying to tell us how Ralph and JackÃ¢â¬â¢s motives are completely different; one is focused on hunting and the other on the society. Jack immediately shows qualities of a good leader, but are different qualities than Ralph shows. Jack has a very commanding presence from the beginning; he arrives on the island having some success in exerting control over others by dominating the choir with his militaristic attitude. At the first assembly he believes that he should be chief, Ã¢â¬Å"I ought to be chiefÃ¢â¬ , but is humiliated when he loses the vote to Ralph. Jack is chauvinistic, stating that, I agree with Ralph. Weve got to have rules and obey them. After all, were not savages. Were English, and the English are best at everything. So weve got to do the right things. Golding believes that Nationalism and chauvinism are the causes of wars on our society and is putting this across in the microcosm. This is a hint that there would be eventually conflict on the island. Golding also uses the theory of Darwinism to relate to Jack, as Jack puts down the weaker in society, Piggy and Simon, like most dictators do. Jack represents evil and violence, the dark side of human nature. He is the character that regresses the most throughout the novel. It starts with him hunting in the Jungle, when Golding uses animal imagery to show his regression, Ã¢â¬Ëape-likeÃ¢â¬â¢ and Ã¢â¬Ëhalf nakedÃ¢â¬ ¦walking on all foursÃ¢â¬â¢. Jack attempts to dominate the group, rather than working with Ralph to benefit it. The conch does not mean anything to Jack, for him, the conch represents the rules and boundaries that have kept him from dominating others. Their entire lives in the other world, the boys had been moderated by rules set by society. The dictator in Jack becomes dominant in his personality during the panic over the beast sighting on the mountain. In trying to put Ralph down, he uses his rhetorical skills to twist Ralphs words. In defence, he offers to the group an excuse that Hed never have got us meat, asserting that hunting skills make for an effective leader. Jack assigns a high value only to those who he finds useful or agreeable to his views and looks to silence those who do not please him. Denouncing the rules of order, Jack declares, We dont need the conch any more. We know who ought to say things. As Jack strives to establish his leadership, he takes on the title of chief and reinforces the illusion of station and power by using the other boys ceremoniously as standard bearers who raise their spears together and announce The Chief has spoken. Jack works closely with Roger, as Ralph does with Piggy and Simon, to help him form his new dictatorship at Castle Rock. Though Roger does not possess any sort of leadership skills, he does have a forced authority over others. This role is no game for him, though; by the night of Simons death, Jack has clearly gone power-mad, sitting at the pig roast on a large log painted and garlanded . . . like an idol while power . . . chattered in his ear like an ape. His tribe addresses him as Chief, ind icating a form of more primitive tribal leadership. JackÃ¢â¬â¢s leadership in the macrocosm would not work, it would just lead to war. Whereas on the island Jack promises food and fun, so everybody follows him. JackÃ¢â¬â¢s savage, primitive society murders the two outcasts, Piggy and Simon. The next on their list is Ralph, who is finding himself running away from a line of JackÃ¢â¬â¢s group across the island. In the midst of the chaos, the forest is set on fire. As Ralph is running away, he unselfishly thinks, Ã¢â¬ËThe fools! The fire must be almost at the fruit trees- what would they eat tomorrow. Even though JackÃ¢â¬â¢s tribe is hunting him down, all he cares about are the others. At the end of the novel, a naval officer comes onto the island. When he asks who is in charge, Jack steps forward and then steps back. He finally realizes that what he was doing was wrong and cowers away from the naval officer, thinking that Ralph would take all of the blame. Ralph loudly proclaims the he is the leader. They had all finally come to realize what they had done. They soon discovered that if they had followed Ralph, none of this would have happened. hen the naval officer appears on the island, all the boys who were moments ago behaving savagely, come to a halt and suddenly return to their senses. This suggests that the appearance of the naval officer symbolizes the return of both adult supervision and civilization. Ralph was the best leader in the novel, he puts the society over himself at all times. Jack has the better leadership skills, but chooses to use them for the wrong reasons. The fact that he came to be the leader was because of humanitys sinful tendency towards savagery.
Wednesday, December 4, 2019
I think public administration is a science because it involves the study of government decision making and policies, which can help to produce more policies. Science is also defined as the study of something or the pursuit of knowledge on public administration. http://en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Public_administration has more details on public administration. Public administration is not a science or an art. Public administration is known as a craft for many reasons. It is not science because there isnt an entirely correct way of doing it, there are no equations that will constitute efficiency or effectiveness for sure. Science is all about facts, The Study of Administration Woodrow Wilson November 1, 1886 An Essay I suppose that no practical science is ever studied where there is no need to know it. The very fact, therefore, that the eminently practical science of administration is finding its way into college courses in this country would Top of Form Bottom of Form MSGManagement Basics At a first glance it seems easier to accept public administration as an art. We will write a custom essay sample on Public admin as an art or science or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page It is just the administration of Government affairs and for most part it does not follow the laws of Science like absence of normative value, predictability of behavior and universal application. So, does that mean we cannot list it into a respectable category of scientific subjects? There are many authors who ferociously defended it and argued that public administration as an area of study is indeed a Science. The earliest of them was Lorenz von Stein an 1855, a German professor from Vienna who said that public administration is an integrated Science and viewing it just as administrative laws was a restrictive definition. In modern times, categorizing public administration as Science found favor with many, the most important one being the father of American public administration, President Woodrow Wilson. We shall read more about the Wilsonian view of public administration in the next article, however he mainly emphasized that the objective of administrative study is to discover what government can properly and successfully do and how it can do those things with utmost efficiency with least possible cost of money or energy. After Wilson another important argument came from Frederick Taylor who wrote a book called The Principles of Scientific Management (1911) in which he proposed to discover one best way of doing things/operation and thus save on cost on time and energy. Luther Gulick and L Urvick collectively published, Papers on the Science of Administration which reaffirmed its status as a Science. W F Willoughby stated that public administration like Science has certain fundamental principles which can be generally applied and therefore it is a Science. However, there still remain certain aspects to be established before public administration can be actually and in real terms, be classified as a Science. The places of normative values in public administration should be clearly defined. More efforts should be put in to understanding the human nature and dynamics at play in public administration. Lastly, the principles of public administration should derive references from across the worlds, cultures, type of states etc to make them more universal and free of cultural, religious and political biases. The advent of the modern welfare state itself has added, to the changing approach to public administration. The kind of activities and sphere of works have never been more varied and dynamic and there has been a never before interest in actually improving the efficiency of the government. Subject matter experts like Frederick Taylor have opened ways to exploration, experimentation, observation, collection of data and analysis based on which principles and laws can be made. There are increasing number of authors like Metcalfe, Fayol, Emerson, Follett, Mooney, and more recently Drucker etc who have written on the subjects of administration. In-fact Drucker wrote a book called Ã¢â¬Å"The Age of DiscontinuityÃ¢â¬ and one of the chapters of the book called The Sickness of Government became the basis of the New Public Management theory popular in 1980s which emphasized the market oriented management of the public sector. So, one can safely say that with the changing times and more and more studies carried out in the field of social sciences, administration and human relations, the subject of public administration can no longer take the shelter of art and would have to emerge stronger with relevant and fundamental principles like that of Science. I think public administration is a science because it involves the study of government decision making and policies, which can help to produce more policies. Science is also defined as the study of something or the pursuit of knowledge on public administration (myschoolcomm reply) Hassan Raza Lyndall Urwick (1891-1983) was a British army officer turned theorist and consultant whose work integrated the ideas of scientific management with the ideas of classical organization theory. Luther Gulick (1892-1970) served on President Franklin D. Roosevelts Committee on Administrative Management during the 1930s, and his major interests were political science and public service. Urwick and Gulick edited a 1937 publication titled Papers on the Science of Administration, Kelly Gathered these Facts Email Since the earliest days of bureaucratic infrastructure, governments have employed individuals on a hierarchical basis to carry out the numerous functions associated with government services and the implementation of policy in public life. These individuals are known as public servants, and the infrastructure to which they belong is called public administration. Public servants, or public administrators, have traditionally been either hired or appointed, but not elected. Public administrators are responsible for carrying out the functions which result from and are stipulated by lawmakers at the executive, legislative and judicial levels of government. To this extent, government administrators include government ministers, law enforcement personnel, municipal managers and economic analysts and strategists. These individuals work in government at all levels from federal to state to municipal and represent the hierarchical manner by which public power is delegated as a means to ensure the effectiveness of public policy as well as the efficient distribution of its benefits to those governed. As a discipline, public administration came to the fore in the late 1800s when academics including Woodrow Wilson, then a professor at Wesleyan University prior to his ascension to the U. S. presidency, proposed a model of government bureaucracy that closely followed large businesses and corporations in terms of infrastructure and cost effectiveness. Up to this time in the late 1800s, roles in government were available not necessarily on the basis of aptitude or skill, but rather by virtue of connections, word-of-mouth and nepotism. The emerging model of public administration encouraged greater fairness of opportunity to participate in public administration through the use of written civil service examinations. These exams would indicate an individualÃ¢â¬â¢s understanding of the bureaucratic infrastructure as well as the theoretical bases of public policy implementation, public finance and the extent of the authority of a public administratorÃ¢â¬â¢s role. Such measures were first initiated by the Pendleton Act of 1883, requiring that candidates for roles in the federal government undergo testing as a prerequisite for being hired. In 1978, the Civil Service Reform Act took additional steps to ensure fairness of opportunity and fair treatment for candidates as well as those currently employed as public administrators at the federal level. Between the 1880s and the early 1900s, public administration developed in academia as an interdisciplinary approach to the effectiveness of public policy between the bureaucratic system and the population it is meant to serve. As a discipline, public administration further seeks to reform the existing bureaucratic system so that it may more effectively adapt to the publicÃ¢â¬â¢s changing needs. Numerous colleges and universities now offer undergraduate- and graduate-level degree programs in public administration, integrating such subjects as history, economics, public finance, political science and sociology. These component parts illustrate the multitude of perspectives required for effectively implementing public policy. The educated public administrator understands how his or her role differs from that of a politician, the distinction between public and private enterprises and the benefits of superimposing business fundamentals on the management of a bureaucratic framework. The question of whether public administration should be classified as an art or a science has been the subject of much speculation in terms of its multidimensional approach. Many believe that the effective implementation of public policy where maintaining good relations with the public is concerned is, in and of itself, an art. However, the role of public administration as both a profession and as an academic discipline worthy of quantifiable examination and review classifies it unequivocally as a science. See more at: http://www. thefreeresource. com/is-public-administration-a-science-or-an-art#sthash. 9MGc5vtM. dpuf which included articles on organization theory and public administration. Gulick isolated the responsibilities of the chief executive and enumerated them according to the acronym POSDCORB, which stands for planning, organizing, staffing, directing, coordinating, reporting, and budgeting. One of his main points was that well-managed, self-contained organizations or departments are nearly always headed by a single top manager such as a CEO. For his part, Urwick believed that the activities necessary to achieve organizational goals should be grouped and assigned to individuals in an impersonal way, echoing the impartial detachment of Max Webers bureaucracy. Urwick also wrote about the problems of managing large numbers of employees, identified multiple levels of supervisory management, and used a formula to determine the minimum and maximum number of subordinates a manager can effectively supervise. His work was an important step in synthesizing the principles of scientific management with the thinking of Weber and Fayol. Art is skillful and systematized practice. It comes to a person partly as a matter of natural endowment and partly from effort to learn and master its techniques. For a long time public administration has been assumed as an art. It has been repeated often that administrators are born and not made. Gifted administrators like Kautilya, Akbar, Todarmal, Bismarck and Sardar Patel worked wonders with their administrative skill and were hailed as the greatest artists in their own field by an admiring world. This was the reason why training had no role in preparing an administrator for his future job. However, there is difference of opinion among the thinkers on whether public administration is an art, science or craft. Before we decide whether there is a science of administration or not, it is necessary to understand the meaning of the term Ã¢â¬Å"ScienceÃ¢â¬ . If by science is meant a conceptual scheme of things in which every particularity covered may be assigned a mathematical value, and then administration is not a science. If on the other hand, we rightly use the term in connection with a body of systematized knowledge, derived from experience and observation, then public administration is a science. Public administration knowledge is increasing and public administration study is being approached through the scientific method. Luther Gullick is of the view that, Ã¢â¬Å"Science of administration is a system of knowledge whereby men may understand relationship, predict results and influence outcomes in any situation where men are organized at work together for a common purposeÃ¢â¬ . Science is characterized by precision and predictability. A scientific rule is one that works all the time. As a matter of fact rules in science are considered to be so rigid and final that they are not called rules at all but laws. Two parts of hydrogen combined with one part of Oxygen will always give us Water or steam or ice, depending on the temperature regardless of where and when the amalgamation of the two elements takes place. Of course, if the apparatus combining them is dusty or if some one switches it off at the wrong time, or if any of countless thousands of other things happen, the formation of H20 may not occur. But this does not invalidate the formula. So nor sciences or some aspects of science, achieve such a 100 percent level of predictability. Many of the scientific aspects of the social science similarly deal with expectations that govern only a portion of the elements being scrutinized, not all of them. For example many social scientists feel that they have established pretty much as a scientific law, the theory that political participation correlates with education and affluence. But more explicitly they feel that their research has proved that the more educated and/ or the more affluent people are, the more they will tend to participate in the political participation, will almost invariably be greater in those communities or neighborhoods where education and affluence is greater. However one cannot automatically assume that any person who has a Ph. D and one having Rs. 50,000 per month salary-the two do not always go together will be a feverish participant in the political process. In similar fashion, one cannot single out an individual at the bottom rung of the education-affluence ladder and automatically assume that he or she is estranged from or antagonistic to, politics; obviously some low income and less educated people participate quite intensively in politics, while some of the well educated rich have never been bothered registering to vote. Yet, with it all, the latter are much more likely to take a more active role in politics than are the former. Science here reigns, although somewhat imperfectly, by establishing degrees of probability. Administration makes or should make great use of scientific data, laws, and theories. The use of mathematics and computer sciences in some aspects of budgeting is a fairly obvious example. The utilization is personnel work of somewhat less definitive but nevertheless statistically valid material developed by psychologist is another. Thus administration uses these types of scientific data, but is it a science itself? In attempting to answer this question we should note that the utilization of science is not confirmed to the sciences themselves. Music, for instant, bases itself on law of harmony that are quite mathematical. Painting depends on laws dealing with the colours of the spectrum. Yet both music and painting are arts, not sciences. In a sense, the same holds true for administration. Administrators made use of scientific laws, techniques and data. But they do so in ways that allow a great deal of free rein to the individual imagination and temperament. Practically every social discipline, finds itself confronted with the question whether it can be a science? It is obvious that social sciences cannot produce such results with the same certainty as it can in the physical sciences like physics, Chemistry, Mathematics, Astronomy etc. Politics has no principles by following which a political leader or party can win a majority or prevent revolution with absolute certainty. Economics has no sure recipe for making individual or nation prosperous. Same way, public administration too has no sure principles by which desired results can always be obtained. And on his ground the physical scientists and others of their way of thinking during the claim of these studies to be sciences. We are proud that man thinks fie has a will of his own and acts in accordance with the dictates of his will not two persons-not even real brothers are completely identical in their attitudes, perceptions, orientations, and responses. Even the same person doe? not make, identical response to identical situations. A subject which studies human behaviour is, as a result, certainly much more complex and should in no way, be regarded as existing on a level lower than that of physical sciences. Robert Dahl has argued that public administration is not a science because it does not have principles that are of Universal applicability. He says that there can be no truly universal generalization about public administration without a social characteristic impinging on public administration. Can we determine what aspects of public administration of any, are truly independent of nation and social setting? Are these principles of public administration that are of universal applicability or valid only in terms of special environment public administration have had its growth in the cultural framework of the west. As such, its findings and principles may not necessarily hold valid in other parts of the world, where different cultures prevail. As public administration has vital interaction with its social setting, an institution or principle of public administration is unlikely, to be transplanted in another society. Public administration is culture bound. Until principles of public administration are either derived or varied from cross-cultural studies, they cannot lay claim to universal validity. In short, public administration can be entitled to be called science only after its principles are directly derived from studies and investigations made in the different societies of the world-in Asian, satin American and African Countries. No social science including public administration, which studies human behaviour, can claim the degree of precision and in fallibility characteristic of physical science. Dahl says, Ã¢â¬Å"We are long away from a science of public administrationÃ¢â¬ No science of public administration is possible unless: (a) The place of normative value is made clear. (b) The nature of men in the area of administration is better understood and his conduct is more predictable. (c) There is a body of comparative studies from which it may be possible to discover principles and generalities that transcend national boundaries and peculiar historical experiences. There is much validity to the criticism of Dahl. But it must he remembered that he wrote this in 1957. Since then much advancement has been made. Increasing research has been initiated to discover the place of man in different administrative settings and to understand the compulsions of social environment of public administration. Comparative studies today form the core of the discipline. Thus, great effort is being made in studying public administration in scientific direction. Public administration must be understood to be science because a scientific approach to its study can be used. It is not a science to the extent that it has preciseness or universal validity of laws or principles. To this extent there is no social science that can claim the pre-requisites of a physical science. Public administration is primarily a science of observation rather than experiment. Public administration is a progressive science whose generalization or Ã¢â¬ËPrinciplesÃ¢â¬â¢ are bound to be constantly revised and restated in the light of fresh discovery of facts and new experience. There can be no absolute liability about the lessons it teaches, although various points of view put forward from time to time may give the student a truer and truer insight into the problems involved. With a view to encroaching the science of public administration and discover new techniques and principles of administration special institutions have been established in all the advanced countries of the world. For example, in Great Britain there is renounced Institute of Public Administration, in the U. S. A. there is the famous Max Well Graduate School of Public Administration at Syracuse, and in India, there is the Indian Institute of Public Administration in New Delhi. Now we focus our discussion to the last category, that of craft, we find a more suitable or at least a more comfortable classification. The woman who paints a picture that hangs in a museum is an artist. The man who brings his easel and palette into the museum to copy this picture is a craftsman. The later has an objective stands for the goal he is trying to meet and against which he can be judged. He may use a variety of techniques and materials in his effort to achieve this goal. But the goals remain the same. Another painter-craftsman with the same aim may mix paints differently, shade light differently, or do a host of other things which the former craftsman did not do. But he or she is striving for the same end and outside observer can usually determine who was the most successful. A more persistent hypothetical problem will further point up the ability of viewing administration as neither a science nor an art but as a craft. Let us assume that a city is divided for the purpose of garbage collection into two distinct and equal sections. One team of sanitation workers under an assistant sanitation commissioner is assigned to each section, with the objective of keeping the streets clean. The ways in which each team goes about; its work may differ depending on the personalities of workers, and a variety of other factors. But an objective standard exists for comparing the relative efficiency of each which produces cleaner streets? Most administrative activity does not lend itself to such an easy evaluation as the example just given. When it comes to assessing the efficiency of a foreign policy operation-to take just one example, assessments and judgments can become very tricky. The administration of a policy often becomes hard to separate from the policy itself. Furthermore, there is not always agreement on the critical or the objective against success or failure is to be measured. And in many cases, varying conditions will complicate our comparison. In the street cleaning case, for instance, one team may excel another team only because its streets are in a lower density section of the city which has less garbage. Or it may outperform the other team only because its district is closer to the incinerator, thereby cutting down the travel times needed to send its dump trucks back and forth. Nevertheless, despite all these complicating factors, in most administrative situations there is an objective standard lurking somewhere, shadowy and illusive and hard to apply through it. At the same time, there is almost never a precise formula that will invariably work best in all situations. The situations not only change but the ideas that may be applied to handling them are almost as infinite as the human mind. Another example, this one from history will provide further support for our contention that administration may be more easily categorized as a craft than as an art or a science. President Roosevelt used a great deal of artistry and imagination in dealing with various problems faced in the particular situation. Yet he was not creating a work of art but resolving a difficult problem. The same time, however, scientist, for what he did not lend itself to easy formalization. His solution, although it might provide some ideas for other administrators faced with similar dilemmas, certainly does not lend itself to an all-embracing equation. Such a solution, for instance, would not have proved of much use of George Washington when he confronted the somewhat similar challenge of dealing with the bitter fight between his two top aides, Alexander Hamilton and Thomas Jefferson. For one thing, there were no conservation projects to inspect, no trains to transport the visiting party